Estudos sobre o «vermelhão» do algodoeiro (III)
ResumoIn several cotton crops areas of the State of S. Paulo it was observed, during the years of 1948, 1949, and 1951, the appearance of a purple color of the leaves; the color appears in the opening of the bolls and was correlated with a decrease of production. The opinions concerning the cause of such abnormality were very different and sometimes contradictory; certain investigators attributed the disease to insect attack, others to bad climatic conditions whereas others to a potassium deficiency now called "fome de potássio" (potash hunger); our ideas on the subject is another one. We think that the disease is caused by lack of a suitable supply of magnesium. This opinion is largely based on the syntomatology found in the literature. To study the problem, several experiments were carried out, namely: 1. pot experiments using soil collected in areas where the disorder had appeared; 2. pot experiments controlling the water supply; 3. sand culture experiments omitting either potassium or magnesium; 4. leaf analysis of plant matrial collected troughout the Piracicaba County; 5. plot experiments with the varieties Texas, Express, and I.A. 817 Campinas. The first four experiments were discussed elsewhere. To study the point 5 an experiment was carried out, with the following treatments : 1 - NPKCaMg (no K added) - Mg supplied as MgSO4 (a soluble form); 2 -NPKCa (no Mg added); 3 -NPKCaMg (complete) - Mg supplied as MgSO4; 4 - NPKCaMg (complete) - Mg supplied as dolomitic limestone (a slightly soluble form) as a rate 2.5 higher than in the treatment 1 and 3. Organic matter as cottonseed meal was applied in the proportion of 500 kg per hectare. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 4 replications and the results can be summarized as follows: 1 the I.A 817 variety was the most strongly affected by the physiological disorder, with severe decrease in yield; 2. the disease occurred more frequently in the minus magnesium treatment; 3. dolomitic limestone is so effective as magnesium sulfate in the control of the disease as well in the raising of the yield; 4. in the minus K treatment it was observed a marked occurrence of the typical symptoms of potassium deficiency (cotton rust); 5. magnesium was actually, in the experimental conditions the responsible for the purple color (vermelhão) of the cotton leaves.
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Coury, T., Ranzani, G., Malavolta, E., & Brasil Sobrinho, M. O. C. do. (1952). Estudos sobre o «vermelhão» do algodoeiro (III). Anais Da Escola Superior De Agricultura Luiz De Queiroz, 10, 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0071-12761953000100006