Uma nova modalidade de sexo-determinação no grilo sul-americano eneoptera surinamensis
ResumoThe male of Eneoptera surinamensis (Orthoptera-Eneopteridae) is provided with 9 chromosomes, that is, with 3 pairs of autosomes and 3 sex chromosomes. Spermatogonia. - The autosomes of the spermatogonia are of the same size and U-shaped. One of the sex chromosomes approximately equalling the autosomes in size is telocentric, while the other two are much larger and V-shaped. One of the latter is smaller than the other. The sex chromosomes as showed in Figs. 1 and 2 are designated by X, Yl and Y2, X being the larger V, Yl the smaller one and Y2 the rod-shaped. Primary spermatocytes. - Before the growth period of the spermatocytes all the three sex chromosomes are visible in a state of strong heteropycnosis. X is remarkable in this stage in having two long arms well separated by a wide commissural segment. (Figs. 4, 5 and 6). During the growth period Y2 disappears, while X and Yl remain in a condensed form until metaphase. These may be separated from one another or united in the most varied and irregular manner. (Fig. 7 to 12). In the latter case the segments in contact seem to be always different so that we cannot recognize any homology of parts in the sense os genetics. At diplotene Y2 reappears together with the autosomal tetrads. X and Yl may again be seen as separate or united elements. (Figs. 13 and 14). At later diakinesis and metaphase the three sex chromosomes are always independent from each other, Y2 being typically rod-shaped, X and Yl V-shaped, X being a little larger than Yl. (Fig. 15 to 18). At metaphase the three condensed tetrads go to the equatorial plane, while the sex chromosomes occupy any position at both sides of this plane. In almost all figures which could be perfectly analysed X appeared at one side of the autosomal plate an Yl together with Y2 far apart at the other side. (Figs. 16 and 18). Only a few exception have been found. (Figs. 17 and 19). At anaphase X goes in precession to one pole, Yl and Y2 to the other (Figs. 20 and 21). As it is suggested by the few figures in which a localization of the sex chromosomes different from the normal has been observed, the possibility of other types of segregation of these elements cannot be entirely precluded. But, if this does happen, the resulting gametes should be inviable or give inviable zygotes. Early in anaphase autosomes and sex chromosomes divide longitudinally, being maintained united only by the kinetochore. (Figs. 20 and 21). At metaphase the three sex chromosomes seem to show no special repulsion against each other, X being found in the proximity of Yl or Y2 indifferently. At anaphase, however, the evidences in hand point to a stronger repulsion between X on the one side and both Ys on the other, so that in spite of the mutual repulsion of the latter they finish by going to the same pole. Secondary spermatocytes. - At telophase of the primary spermatocytes all the chromosomes enter into distension without disappearing of view. A nuclear membrane is formed around the chromosomes. All the chromosomes excepting Y2 which has two arms, are four-branched. (Fig. 22). Soon the chromosomes enter again into contraction giving rise to the secondary metaphase plate. Secondary spermatocytes provided as expected with four and five chromosomes are abundantly found. (Figs. 23 and 24). In the former all chromosomes are X-shaped while in the latter there is one which is V-shaped. This is the rod- shaped Y2. In the anaphase of the spermatocytes with four chromosomes all the chromosomes are V-shaped, one of them (X) being much larger than the others. In those with five there is one rod-shaped chromosome (Y2). (Fig. 25), Spermatids. Two classes of spermatids are produced, one with X and other with Yl and Y2. All the autosomes as well as Y2 soon enter into solution, X remaining visible for long time in one class and Yl in the other. (Figs. 26 and 27). Since both are very alike at this stage, one cannot distinguish the two classes of spermatids. Somatic chromosomes in the famale. - In the follicular cells of the ovary 8 chromosomes were found, two of which are much larger than the rest. (Figs. 29 and 30). These are considered as being sex chromosomes. CONCLUSION: Eneoptera surinamensis has a new type of sex-determining mechanism, the male being X Yl Y2 and the female XX. The sex chromosomes segregate without entering into contact at metaphase or forming group. After a review of the other known cases of complex sex chromosome mechanism the author held that Eneoptera is the unique representative of a true determinate segregation of sex chromosomes. Y2 behaving as sex chromosome and as autosome is considered as representing an intermediary state of the evolution of the sex chromosomes.
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Piza Jor., S. de T. (1946). Uma nova modalidade de sexo-determinação no grilo sul-americano eneoptera surinamensis . Anais Da Escola Superior De Agricultura Luiz De Queiroz, 3, 69-88. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0071-12761946000100005