Aspectos interessantes observados na meiose de alguns hemípteros
ResumoParticular aspects of the meiosis of two species of Hemiptera, namely Megalotomus pallescens (Stal) (Coriscidae) and Jadera sanguinolenta (Fabr.); (Corizidae) are described and discussed in this paper. Megalotomus pallescens This species has primary spermatocytes provided with 7 autosomal tetrads plus a single sex chromosome. The X is smaller than the autosomes and may be found either in the periphery of the circle formed by the autosomal tetrads or in the center together with the m-tetrad which always occupies this position. The X chromosome - In the primary spermatocytes this element, which is tetradiform, orients itself parallelly to the spindle axis and divides transversely by its median constriction. In the secondary spermatocytes it passes undivided to one pole. The m-chromosomes - These chromosomes have been frequently found in close association with the sex chromosome in nuclei wich have passed the diffuse stage, a fact which was considered as affording some evidence in support of the idea /developed by the present writer in another paper with regard to the origin of the m-chromosomes from the sex chromosome. Formation of tetrads - Tetrads appear at first as irregular areas of reticular structure, becoming later more and more distinct. Then, two chromosomal strands very loose and irregular in outline, connected whit each other by several transverse filaments, begin to develop in each area. Growing progressively shorter, thicker and denser, these strands soon give origin to typical Hemiptera tetrads. Jadera sanguinolenta Spermatogonia of this species have 13 chromosomes, that is, 10 autosomes, 2 m-chromosomes and one sex chromosome, one pair of autosomes being much larger than the rest. Chromosomes move toward the poles with both ends looking to them. Primary spermatocytes show 6 tetrads and a single X. The sex chromossome in the first division of the spermatocytes divides as if it was a tetrad, passing undivided to one pole in the second division. In the latter it does not orient, being found anywhere in the cells. Its most common situation in anaphase corresponds therefore to precession. Tetrads are formed here in an entirely different way : the bivalents as they become distinct in the nuclei which came out. of the diffuse stage they appear in form of two thin threads united only at the extremities, an aspect which may better be analized in the larger bivalent. Up from this stage the formation of the tetrads is a mere process of shortening and thickening of both members of the pair. Due to the fact that the paired chromosomes are well separated from each other throughout their entire lenght, the author concluded that chiasmata, if present, are accumulated at the very ends of the bivalents. If no chiasmata have been at all formed, then, what holds together the corresponding extremities must be a strong attraction developed by the kinetochores. If one interprets the bivalents represented in the figures 17-21 as formed by four chromatids paired by one of the ends and united by the opposite one, then the question of the diffuse attachment becomes entirely disproved since it is exactly by the distal extremities that the tetrads later will be connected with the poles. In the opinion of the present writer the facts referred to above are one of the best demonstration at hand of the continuity of the paired threads and at the same time of the dicentricity of Hemiptera chromosomes. In view of the data hitherto collected by the author the behavior of the sex chromosome of the Hemiptera whose males are of the XO type may be summarized as follows: a) The sex chromosome in the primary metaphase appears longitudinally divided, without transverse constriction. It is oriented with the extremities in the plane of the equator and its chromatids separate by the plane of division. (Euryophthalmus, Protenor). In the second division the sex chromosome, provided as it is with an active kinetochore at each end, orients itself with its lenght parallelly to the spindle axis and passes undivided to one pole (Protenor?), or loses to the other pole a centric end (Euryophthalmus) In the latter case it has to become dicentric by means of a longitudinal spliting beginning at the kinetochore. b) The sex chromosome in the primary metaphase is tetradiform, that is, it is provided with a longitudinal split and a median transverse constriction. Orients with its length paral lelly to the spindle axis (what is probably due to the kinetochores being not yet divided) and divides transversely. (Corizas hyalinus, Megalotomus pallescens). in the secondary metaphase the sex chromosome which turned to be dicentric in consequence of a longitudinal spliting initiated in the kineto chore, orients perpendicularly to the equatorial plane and without losing anyone of its extremities passes undivided to one pole (Megalotomus). Or, distending between both poles passes to one side, in which case it loses one of its ends to the other side. (Corizas hyalinus). c) The very short sex chromosome in the first division of the spermatocytes orients in the same manner aa the tetrads and divides transversely. In the second division, due to the inactivity o the inetochore, it remains monocentric and motionless anywhere in the cell, finishing by being enclosed in the nearer nucleus. In the secondary telophase it recuperates its dicentricity at the same time as the autosomal chromatids. (Jadera sanguinolenta, Diactor bilineatus). d) The sex chromosome in the first division orients in the equador with its longitudinal axis parallelly to the spindle axis passing integrally to one pole or, distending itself between the anaphase plates, loses one of its ends to the opposite pole. In this case it becomes dicentric in the prometaphase of the second division, behaving in this division as the autossomes. It thus divides longitudnally. (Pachylis laticomis, Pachylis pharaonis).
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Piza Jor., S. de T. (1946). Aspectos interessantes observados na meiose de alguns hemípteros . Anais Da Escola Superior De Agricultura Luiz De Queiroz, 3, 347-362. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0071-12761946000100021