Systematic review of the neotropical family stygnidae: (opiliones, laniatores, gonyleptoidea)

  • Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha Universidade de São Paulo; Museu de Zoologia

Abstract

The family Stygnidae is reviewed. Its species have been recorded in central-northern South America above the Tropic of Capricorn (except in Chile and in Paraguay) and Lesser Antilles. A new classification is herein proposed based on a cladistic analysis using 35 terminals and 50 characters of external morphology and male genitalia. The eight equally parsimonious trees obtained (length = 156; CI= 46; RI= 78) are summarized by a strict consensus tree which forms the basis of the supraspecific classification. Three subfamilies are recognized as monophyletic, Nomoclastinae, Heterostygninae and Stygninae, including in all 26 genera and 73 species. Phareinae and Ideostygninae are synony-mizedwith Stygninae. Gaibulus Roewer, 1943 is considered incertae sedis, because in four trees it is the sister group of Stygninae while in the other four trees it is the sister group of Heterostygninae. Styphelus Simon, 1879 and S. flavitarsis Simon, 1879 are transferred from the Stygninae to the Heterostygninae. Pickeliana Mello-Leitão, 1932 is revalidated from the synonym of Protimesius. Ortonia Wood, 1879 and O.ferox Wood, 1879 are considered genus and species inquerendae. The following new combinations are proposed: Innoxius magnus (Caporiacco, 1951); Eutimesius ephippiatus (Roewer, 1915); E. albicinctus (Roewer, 1915); E. ornatus (Roewer, 1943); Stygnoplus clavotibialis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1947); S. longipalpus (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942); S. tuberculatus (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942); S. flavitarsis (Simon, 1879); S. antiguanus (Roewer, 1943); S. dominicanus (Roewer, 1943); Pickeliana capito (Soares & Soares, 1974); Pickeliana pickeli Mello-Leitão, 1932; Protimesius mendopticus (H.Soares, 1978); P. laevis (Sorensen, 1932); P. evelineae (Soares & Soares, 1978); P. albilineatus (Roewer, 1957); P. amplichelis (Roewer, 1931); Verrucastygnus caliginosus (Pinto-da-Rocha, 1990); Kaapora minutissimus (Roewer, 1943); Sickesia usta (Mello-Leitão, 1941); Stygnus aggerum Sorensen, 1932; S. ferrugineus (Perty, 1833); S. gertschi (Roewer, 1963); S. klugi (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943); S. lesserti (Roewer, 1943); S. luteus (Mello-Leitão, 1931); S. mediocris (Roewer, 1931); S. multispinosus (Piza, 1938); S. pectinipes (Roewer, 1943); S. penivianus (Roewer, 1957); S. polyacanthus (Mello-Leitão, 1923); S. simonis Sorensen, 1932; S. simplex (Roewer, 1913); S. weyrauchi (Roewer, 1963). The following genera are considered synonyms: Heterostygnus Roewer, 1913 = Stygnidius Simon, 1879; Dichobunistygnus Roewer, 1915, Hoplostygnus Roewer, 1915, Xanthostygnus Mello-Leitão, 1949 = Eutimesius Roewer, 1913; Styphelus Simon, 1879, Pseudostygnoplus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942, Parastygnoplus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942, Ilhastygnus Roewer; 1943 = Stygnoplus Simon, 1879; Obidosus Roewer, 1931, Ideostygnus Sorensen, 1932, Misetropius H.Soares, 1979 = Protimesius Roewer, 1913; Liophareus Mello-Leitão, 1940, Colomphareus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943, Allophareus Roewer, 1913 = Phareus Simon, 1879; Stygnellus Roewer, 1913, Parastygnellus Roewer, 1913, Metastygnellus Mello-Leitão, 1928, Lojanellus Roewer, 1931, Diplostygnus Mello-Leitão, 1931, Acrostygnus Roewer, 1931, Henriksia Mello-Leitão, 1933, Chelistygnus Roewer, 1943, Stygnellomma Roewer, 1943, Stygnellops Roewer, 1943, Parajanellus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943, Satiastygnus Roewer, 1963, and Stygnophareus H. Soares, 1970 = Stygnus Perty, 1833. The following species are synonymized: Heterostygnus minutus Roewer, 1913 = Stygnidius inflatus (Guérin-Meneville, 1829-1843); Eutimesius miles Sorensen, 1932, Xanthostygnus fractus Mello-Leitão, 1949 = Eutimesius simoni Roewer, 1913; Bunistygnellus beebei Goodnight & Goodnight, 1949, Stenostygnellus praetiosus Caporiacco, 1951; Stygnoplus marginalis Sorensen, 1932 = Stenostygnellus flavolimbatus Roewer, 1913; Stenostygnoides gracilis Roewer, 1943 = S. cosmetitarsus Roewer, 1913; Liophareus mamillatus Mello-Leitão, 1940, Colomphareus rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943, Allophareus robustus Roewer, 1963 = Phareus raptator (Gervais, 1844);Diplostygnus leonardosi Mello-Leitão, 1939, Diplostynus tibialis Mello-Leitão, 1941, Stygnophareus novaisi H.Soares, 1970 = Stygnus luteus (Mello-Leitão, 1931); Metastygnellus longimanus Mello-Leitão, 1928, Metastygnellus nasutus Mello-Leitão, 1944 = Stygnus polyacanthus (Mello-Leitão, 1923); Chelistygnus bellicosus Roewer, 1943 = Stygnus aggerum (Sorensen, 1932). The following genera and species are newly described: Nomoclastes quasimodo, sp.n.; Innoxius, gen.n. (type species Stenostygnus magnus Caporiacco, 1951); Yapacana, gen.n. (type species Y. tibialis, sp.n.); Minax, gen.n. (type species M. tetraspinosus, sp.n.); Stygnoplus biguttatus, sp.n.; Stygnoplus trilineatus, sp.n.; Verrucastygnus, gen.n. (type species Stenostygnoides caliginosus Pinto-da-Rocha, 1990); Auranus hoeferscovitorum, sp.n.; Kaapora, gen.n. (type species Nanophareus minutissimus Roewer, 1944); Stygnus brevispinis, sp.n.; S. grasshofli, sp.n.; S. heliae, sp.n.; S. marthae, sp.n.; S. tocantinensis, sp.n. and Protimesius trocaraincola, sp.n.. Keywords: Cladistic analysis; Neotropics; Opiliones; systematics; Stygnidae.

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Published
1997-05-23
How to Cite
Pinto-da-Rocha, R. (1997). Systematic review of the neotropical family stygnidae: (opiliones, laniatores, gonyleptoidea) . Arquivos De Zoologia, 33(4), 163-342. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-7793.v33i4p163-342
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Original Article