Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus in domestic cats of Fortaleza, Ceará
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) are important etiologic agents of immunosuppressive diseases in felines. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these retroviruses in domestic cats in Fortaleza, Ceará and the epidemiological factors associated with these infections. Between 2015 and 2016, 138 blood samples were collected and tested for FIV and FeLV by the enzyme immunoadsorption assay (ELISA). Parameters such as breed, gender, age, reproductive status, multi-cat environment, outdoor access and clinical manifestations were evaluated. The results showed that 12.32% were positive for FIV, 5.80% for FeLV and 1.45% for co-infection (FIV/FeLV). FIV+ animals were mostly mixed breed, neutered male adult cats, with indoor lifestyle and living in a multi-cat household. The most common clinical manifestation observed was disorders of the oral cavity. Factors found to increase the risk for FeLV seropositivity include mixed breed, young, spayed female cats, indoor lifestyle living in a multi-cat household were the most common epidemiological factors observed. The most common clinical manifestation was anorexia and apathy. The prevalence of these viruses were relatively high, compared with other region of Brazil. This study demonstrated that mixed breed, castrated, multi-cat environment and indoor lifestyle animals are of greater relevance for FIV and FeLV infection diseases. Factors related to cat demographics and health such as age, sex and type of household are important predictors for seropositive status to FeLV or FIV in Fortaleza. High prevalence of FeLV or FIV observed in our study is of concern, in view of the immunosuppressive potential of the two pathogens.
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