Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis-epididymitis, smooth-Brucella, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, and Maedi-Visna in sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Authors

  • Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2753-1296
  • Alessandro Sá Guimarães Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Gado de Leite https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1006-947X
  • Aurora Maria Gumarães Gouveia Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva
  • Fernanda Morcatti Coura Instituto Federal Minas Gerais, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2243-3125
  • Filipe Borges Carmo Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva
  • Rebeca Barbosa Pauletti Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva
  • Vasco Azevedo Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4775-2280
  • Walter Lilenbaum Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto Biomédico, Centro de Ciências Médicas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2434-8728
  • Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas
  • Raymundo Rizaldo Pinheiro Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Caprinos e Ovinos https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3590-6948
  • Amanda Carvalho Rosado Ferreira Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6287-1608
  • Mauricio Gauterio Dasso Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor
  • Andrey Pereira Lage Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventivas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9325-5728
  • Marcos Bryan Heinemann Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.164278

Keywords:

Brucellosis., C. pseudotuberculosis, Leptospira spp., Maedi-Visna, T. gondii, Ovine, Serodiagnosis

Abstract

The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Brucella ovis-epididymitis, smooth-Brucella, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and Maedi-visna in sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil and to study their simultaneous occurrence, including caseous lymphadenitis, at sheep and flock levels. The study was conducted at a sheep slaughterhouse with Federal Inspection Service. Sera from 594 animals from 21 flocks were collected, in 2007. The agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was employed to detect anti-B. ovis and anti-Maedi Visna antibodies, whereas Rose Bengal (RB) and the 2-mercaptoethanol test (2ME) were used to test anti-smooth Brucella antibodies. For the detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies, sera were examined by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), while for the detection of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii ELISA was used. Prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella, B. ovis-epididimitis, Leptospira spp., toxoplasmosis and Maedi-Visna found in sheep from Minas Gerais was 0.00%, 24.04%, 25.96%, 10.46% and 3.08%, respectively; whereas the seroprevalence in flocks was 0.00%, 80.95%, 90.48%, 71.43% and 23.81%, respectively. Moreover, when data on antibodies anti-Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, previously obtained, were included, about 60% of the flocks showed animals that were exposed to four or more of the studied agents. However, only 25.47% of the sheep exhibited simultaneously antibodies against more than one pathogen. Thus, data from the present study on sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais, Brazil, showed no antibodies to smooth-Brucella and a low frequency of antibodies anti-Maedi Visna lentivirus, and a high and widespread seroprevalence of B. ovis, Leptospira spp., and T. gondii among animals and flocks.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allsup TN. Abortion in sheep associated with Brucella abortus infection. Vet Rec. 1969;84(5):104-8. http://dx.doi. org/10.1136/vr.84.5.104. PMid:4978562.

Andrade MM, Carneiro M, Medeiros AD, Andrade V No, Vitor RW. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with ovine toxoplasmosis in Northeast Brazil. Parasite. 2013;20:20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2013019. PMid:23707895.

Araújo B, Costa J, Souza T, Lima CC, Leite MD, Costa A No, Anunciação AV, Almeida MG, Lima E. Seroepidemiology of sheep brucellosis in the microregion of Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2013;50(2):129-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-3659.v50i2p129-135.

Arsenault J, Dubreuil P, Girard C, Simard C, Belanger D. Maedi-visna impact on productivity in Quebec sheep flocks (Canada). Prev Vet Med. 2003;59(3):125-37. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00086-2. PMid:12809758.

Azevedo SS, Alves CJ, Alves FAL, Inácio JC, Batista CSA, Azevedo AS. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos procedentes de quatro municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Agrop Tec. 2004;25:45-50.

Bajani MD, Ashford DA, Bragg SL, Woods CW, Aye T, Spiegel RA, Plikaytis BD, Perkins BA, Phelan M, Levett PN, Weyant RS. Evaluation of four commercially available rapid serologic tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(2):803-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/ JCM.41.2.803-809.2003. PMid:12574287.

Bennett S, Woods T, Liyanage WM, Smith DL. A simplified general method for cluster sample-surveys of health in developing countries. World Health Stat. 1991;44(3):98106. PMid:1949887.

Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (Brasil). Instrução normativa nº 20, de 15 de agosto de 2005. Aprova os procedimentos para operacionalização do cadastro sanitário de estabelecimentos de criação de caprinos e ovinos. Diário Oficial da União; 2005 Sept 12.

Manual técnico do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose – PNCEBT. Brasília: Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuária e Abastecimento; 2006.

Burgess GW. Ovine contagious epididymitis: a review. Vet Microbiol. 1982;7(6):551-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/03781135(82)90049-9. PMid:6762755.

Buxton D, Maley SW, Wright SE, Rodger S, Bartley P, Innes EA. Toxoplasma gondii and ovine toxoplasmosis: new aspects of an old story. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149(1-2):25-8. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.07.003. PMid:17686585.

Carneiro AC, Carneiro M, Gouveia AM, Guimarães AS, Marques AP, Vilas-Boas LS, Vitor RW. Seroprevalence and risk factors of sheep toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160(3-4):225-9. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.10.092. PMid:19091475.

Caroline L, Minardi CJ, Jean-Francois M. SRLVs: a genetic continuum of lentiviral species in sheep and goats with cumulative evidence of cross species transmission. Curr HIV Res. 2010;8(1):94-100. http://dx.doi. org/10.2174/157016210790416415. PMid:20210785.

Carvalho CA Jr, Xavier MN, Costa LF, Silveira SS, Sant’Anna FM, Borges AM, Gouveia AMG, Santos RL. Agentes infecciosos que podem promover infertilidade em machos da espécie ovina. Rev Bras Reprod Anim. 2010;34:160-7.

Clementino IJ, Alves CJ, Azevedo SS, Paulin LM, Medeiros KA. Inquérito soro-epidemiológico e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Brucella ovis em carneiros deslanados do semi-árido da Paraíba. Pesq Vet Bras. 2007;27(4):137-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2007000400002.

Corbel MJ, Elberg SS, Cosivi O. Brucellosis in humans and animals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. 189 p.

Dal Pizzol M, Ravazzolo AP, Gonçalves IPD, Hötzel I, Fernandes JCT, Moojen V. Maedi-Visna: evidência de ovinos infectados no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1987-1989. Acta Sci Vet. 1989;17:65-76.

Di Rienzo JA, Casanoves F, Balzarini MG, Gonzalez L, Tablada M, Robledo CW. InfoStat versión 2015. Argentina: Grupo InfoStat, FCA, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba; 2015.

Dorjee S, Heuer C, Jackson R, West DM, Collins-Emerson JM, Midwinter AC, Ridler AL. Prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2008;56(4):164-70. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/00480169.2008.36829. PMid:18690252.

Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis in sheep: the last 20 years. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163(1-2):1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. vetpar.2009.02.026. PMid:19395175.

Dungu B, Vorster J, Bath GF, Verwoerd DW. The effect of a natural maedi-visna virus infection on the productivity of South African sheep. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2000;67(2):8796. PMid:11028744.

Faine S, Adler B, Bolin C, Perolat P. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Meibourne: Australia MedSci; 2000.

Ferreira AC, Cardoso R, Dias IT, Mariano I, Belo A, Preto IR, Manteigas A, Fonseca AP. Evaluation of a modified Rose Bengal test and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep. Vet Res. 2003;34(3):297-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/ vetres:2003005. PMid:12791239.

Gebremedhin EZ, Agonafir A, Tessema TS, Tilahun G, Medhin G, Vitale M, Di Marco V. Some risk factors for reproductive failures and contribution of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goats of Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95(3):894-900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.08.007

Gonçalves VSP, Delphino MKVC, Dias RA, Ferreira F, Amaku M, Ferreira JS No, Porto TB, Alves CM, Figueiredo VCF, Lôbo JR. Situação epidemiológica da brucelose bovina no Estado de Minas Gerais. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2009;61(Suppl. 1):35-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S010209352009000700006.

Greenacre M, Blasius J. Multiple correspondence analysis and related methods. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420011319.

Guimarães AS, Carmo FB, Heinemann MB, Portela RW, Meyer R, Lage AP, Seyffert N, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V, Gouveia AM. High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BMC Vet Res. 2011a;7(1):68. http://dx.doi. org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-68. PMid:22067701.

Guimarães AS, Carmo FB, Pauletti RB, Seyffert N, Ribeiro D, Lage AP, Heinemann MB, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V, Gouveia A, Caseous Lymphadenitis MG. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and control. IIOAB J. 2011b;2:33-43.

Guimarães AS, Gouveia AMG, Abreu AB, Haddad JPA, Leite RC, Carmo FB. Características zoossanitárias da ovinocultura em Minas Gerais. Revista de Veterinária e Zootecnia de Minas. 2009a;102:34-40.

Guimarães AS, Seyffert N, Bastos BL, Portela RWD, Meyer R, Carmo FB, Cruz JCM, McCulloch JA, Lage AP, Heinemann MB, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V, Gouveia AMG. Caseous lymphadenitis in sheep flocks of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: prevalence and management surveys. Small Rumin Res. 2009b;87(1-3):86-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. smallrumres.2009.09.027.

Herrmann GP; Lage AP, Moreira EC, Haddad JPA, Resende JR, Rodrigues RO, Leite RC. Soroprevalência de aglutininas anti-Leptospira spp. em ovinos nas Mesorregiões Sudeste e Sudoeste do Estado Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Cienc Rural. 2004;34(2):443-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S010384782004000200017.

Innes EA, Bartley PM, Buxton D, Katzer F. Ovine toxoplasmosis. Parasitology. 2009;136(14):1887-94. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182009991636. PMid:19995468.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. Censo agropecuário 2006 [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2019 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br

Jones JL, Dubey J. Foodborne toxoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(6):845-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ cis508. PMid:22618566.

Kamani J, Mani AU, Egwu GO. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep and goats in Borno state, Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42(4):793-7. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9488-3. PMid:19882227.

Leon-Vizcaino L, Hermoso de Mendoza M, Garrido F. Incidence of abortions caused by leptospirosis in sheep and goats in Spain. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1987;10(2):149-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/01479571(87)90009-9. PMid:3304822.

Lilenbaum W, Varges R, Ristow P, Cortez A, Souza SO, Richtzenhain LJ, Vasconcellos SA. Identification of Leptospira spp. carriers among seroreactive goats and sheep by polymerase chain reaction. Res Vet Sci. 2009;87(1):16-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.12.014. PMid:19232418.

Linfadenite Caseosa (LC) [Internet]. Brasília: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária; 2020. [cited 2019 Nov 20]. Available from: https://www.embrapa.br/cim-inteligenciae-mercado-de-caprinos-e-ovinos/zoossanitario-linfadenite

Lombardi AL, Nogueira AHC, Feres FC, Paulo HP, Castro RS, Feitosa FLF, Cadioli FA, Peiró JR, Perri SHV, Lima VFM, Mendes LCN. Soroprevalência de Maedi-Visna em ovinos na região de Araçatuba, SP. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2009;61(6):1434-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S0102-09352009000600025.

Machado G, Santos DV, Kohek I, Stein MC, Hein HE, Poeta AS, Vidor AC, Corbellini LG. Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis in rams and associated flock level risk factors in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Prev Vet Med. 2015;121(12):183-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.05.009. PMid:26092724.

Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Geneva: World Organisation for Animal Health; 2008 [cited 2019 Nov 20]. Caprine arthritis/encephalitis and Maedi-visna. Available from: http://www.oie.int/ international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/accessonline

Marques APR. Caracterização soroepidemiológica da infecção por vírus Maedi-Visna e Brucella ovis em ovinos no estado de Minas Gerais [thesis]. Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 2006. 79 s.

Martins G, Penna B, Hamond C, Leite RC, Silva A, Ferreira A, Brandão F, Oliveira F, Lilenbaum W. Leptospirosis as the most frequent infectious disease impairing productivity in small ruminants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44(4):773-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/ s11250-011-9964-4. PMid:21898182.

McManus C, Hermuche P, Paiva SR, Paula e Silva FC, Moraes JCF, Melo CB, Mendes C. Distribuição geográfica de raças de ovinos no Brasil e sua relação com fatores ambientais e climáticos, como a classificação de risco para a conservação. [cited 2019 Nov 20]. In: ARCO: Assistência aos Rebanho de Criadores de Ovinos [Internet]. Bagé (RS): ARCO, 2019. Available from: http://www.arcoovinos.com.br/images/ artigosTecnicos/Distribuicao%20Geografica%20de%20 racas%20de%20Ovinos%20no%20Brasil.pdf

Melo LSS, Castro MB, Leite RC, Moreira ÉC, Melo CB. Castro MBd, Leite RC, Moreira ÉC, Melo CBd. Principais aspectos da infecção por Leptospira sp em ovinos. Cienc Rural. 2010;40(5):1235-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S0103-84782010005000072.

Moura AB, Osaki SC, Zulpo DL, Marana ERM. Ocorrência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii em suínos e ovinos abatidos no município de Guarapuava, PR, Brasil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2007;16(1):54-6. PMid:17588324.

Nielsen K. Diagnosis of brucellosis by serology. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90(1-4):447-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0378-1135(02)00229-8. PMid:12414164.

Noordhuizen JPTM, Frankena K, Thrusfield MV, Graaf EAM. Application of quantitative methods in veterinary epidemiology. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers; 2001. http:// dx.doi.org/10.3920/978-90-74134-89-7.

Nozaki CN, Megid J, Lima KC, Silva FF Jr, Veloso CS. Comparação das técnicas em gel de ágar e ELISA no diagnóstico de Brucelose ovina em Cabanhas da região Centro-oeste do estado de São Paulo. Arq Inst Biol. 2004;71(1):1-5.

Ocholi RA, Kwaga JK, Ajogi I, Bale JO. Abortion due to Brucella abortus in sheep in Nigeria. Rev Sci Tech. 2005;24(3):973-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.24.3.1627. PMid:16642768.

Oliveira MMM, Castro RS, Carneiro KL, Nascimento SA, Callado AKC, Alencar CSA, Costa LSP. Anticorpos contra lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes em caprinos e ovinos em abatedouros do estado de Pernambuco. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2006;58(5):947-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S0102-09352006000500035.

Pinheiro JW Jr, Oliveira AAF, Mota RA, Agottani JV, Jesus EM, Assis ST, Oliveira CZ. Ocorrência de ovinos sororeatores para Brucella ovis no estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Revista Veterinaria e Zootecnia. 2009;16:500-8.

Pinheiro JW Jr, Souza MMA, Guerra NR, Santana VLA, Mota RA. Freqüência de aglutininas anti-Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos do sertão do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Cienc Anim Bras. 2008;9:1096-101.

Pinheiro RR. Vírus da artrite encefalite caprina: desenvolvimento e padronização de ensaios imunoenzimáticos (ELISA e Dot-Blot) e estudo epidemiológico no Estado do Ceará, 2001 [thesis]. Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 2001.

Poester FP, Goncalves VS, Lage AP. Brucellosis in Brazil. Vet Microbiol. 2002;90(1-4):55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0378-1135(02)00245-6. PMid:12414134.

R Development Core Team. A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2015.

Romanelli PR, Freire RL, Vidotto O, Marana ER, Ogawa L, De Paula VS, Garcia JL, Navarro IT. Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and dogs from Guarapuava farms, Parana State, Brazil. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82(2):202-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. rvsc.2006.04.001. PMid:17266999.

Schlundt J, Toyofuku H, Jansen J, Herbst SA. Emerging food-borne zoonoses. Rev Sci Tech. 2004;23(2):513-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.23.2.1506. PMid:15702717.

Sigurdsson B, Grimsson H, Palsson PA. Maedi, a chronic, progressive infection of sheep’s lungs. J Infect Dis. 1952;90(3):233-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/90.3.233. PMid:14938612.

Silva AV, Langoni H. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii by comparing cytology, histopathology, bioassay in mice, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vet Parasitol. 2001;97(3):191-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S03044017(01)00404-6. PMid:11390071.

Silva NS, Barros IN, Dasso MG, Almeida MGAR, Laborda SS, Anunciação AVM, Moreira ELT, Lima AES, Oliveira EMD. Detecção de anticorpos anti-“Brucella ovis” em ovinos do Estado da Bahia. Rev Bras Saúde Prod Anim. 2009;10(4):8.

Smith MC, Cutlip R. Effects of infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus on milk production in goats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1988;193(1):63-7. PMid:2843492.

Snowder GD, Gates NL, Glimp HA, Gorham JR. Prevalence and effect of subclinical ovine progressive pneumonia virus infection on ewe wool and lamb production. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1990;197(4):475-9. PMid:2170310.

Sotomaior C, Milczewski V. Relato de um rebanho ovino infectado pelo vírus Maedi-Visna no estado do Paraná. In: Anais do 25º Congresso Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária; 1997; Gramado. Gramado: Editora da Sociedade Veterinária do Rio Grande do Sul; 1997.

Souza LA, Viana RCA, Michalick MSM, Reis JKP, Lage AP. High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Bras Med Vet. 2002;24:127-31. http://dx.doi. org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-68.

Stevenson M, Nunes T, Sanchez J, Thornton R, Reiczigel J, Robison-Cox J, Sebastiani P. epiR: an R package for the analysis of epidemiological data. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2012.

Ueno TE, Goncalves VS, Heinemann MB, Dilli TL, Akimoto BM, de Souza SL, Gennari SM, Soares RM. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in sheep from Federal District, central region of Brazil. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41(4):547-52. http://dx.doi. org/10.1007/s11250-008-9220-8. PMid:18726165.

Van der Puije WN, Bosompem KM, Canacoo EA, Wastling JM, Akanmori BD. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Ghanaian sheep and goats. Acta Trop. 2000;76(1):21-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001706X(00)00084-X. PMid:10913761.

Bovine Brucellosis: manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Geneva: World Organisation for Animal Health; 2009 [cited 2019 Nov 20]. Available from: www.oie.int

Xavier MN, Sant’Anna FM, Silva TMA, Costa EA, Moustacas VS, Merlo FA, Carvalho CA Jr, Dasso MG, Mathias LA, Gouveia AMG, Lage AP, Santos RL. A comparison of two agar gel immunodiffusion methods and a complement fixation test for serologic diagnosis of Brucella ovis infection in experimentally infected rams. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2011;63(4):1016-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S010209352011000400031.

Yorinori EH, Pinheiro RR, Gouveia AMG, Nunes MABC, Haddad JPA. Estudo soroepidemiológico da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina e Maedi Visna nas regiões norte e nordeste de Minas Gerais. Rev Cienc Vida. 2003;23:259-60.

Yorinori EH. Características dos sistemas de produção de pequenos ruminantes e prevalências da artrite-encefalite caprina (CAE) e Maedi-Visna (MV) ovina, nas regiões norte e nordeste de Minas Gerais, 2000 [tese]. Belo Horizonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 2001.

Zedda MT, Rolesu S, Pau S, Rosati I, Ledda S, Satta G, Patta C, Masala G. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57(7-8):e102-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.18632378.2009.01292.x. PMid:19968848.

Zhang B, Bilder C, Biggerstaff B, Schaarschmidt F. binGroup: evaluation and experimental design for binomial group testing. Version 1.0-8. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2011.

Downloads

Published

2020-05-20

How to Cite

Dorneles, E. M. S., Guimarães, A. S., Gouveia, A. M. G., Coura, F. M., Carmo, F. B., Pauletti, R. B., Azevedo, V., Lilenbaum, W., Vitor, R. W. A., Pinheiro, R. R., Ferreira, A. C. R., Dasso, M. G., Lage, A. P., & Heinemann, M. B. (2020). Seroprevalence of Brucella ovis-epididymitis, smooth-Brucella, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, and Maedi-Visna in sheep slaughtered in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 57(2), e164278. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.164278

Issue

Section

FULL ARTICLE

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2 3 > >>