Levels and degradability of crude protein in digestive metabolism and performance of dairy cows

Authors

  • Bruna Gomes Alves Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal
  • Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues Martins Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal
  • Dannylo de Oliveira Sousa Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health
  • Marcos André Arcari Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal
  • Francisco Palma Rennó Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal
  • Marcos Veiga Santos Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4273-3494

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.168157

Keywords:

Digestibility, N balance, Protein, Rumen-degradable protein, Ruminal fermentation

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the level and degradability of crude protein (CP) on the digestive metabolism and productive performance of dairy cows. In both experiments, 15 Holstein cows with 585 ± 40 kg of body weight were distributed in a Latin square design with five contemporary squares, three periods of 21 days and three treatments. In experiment 1, treatments consisted of three CP levels (130, 160 or 180 g CP/kg DM), while in experiment 2, the treatments consisted of three levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP; 80, 100 or 120 g RDP/kg DM) in diets with average of 163 g CP/kg DM. Variables evaluated in both experiments were dry matter intake (DMI), total apparent digestibility, milk yield (MY) and composition, ruminal fermentation and N balance. In experiment 1, the increase of CP from 130 to 180 linearly increased the organic matter, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake (kg) and the apparent total digestibility coefficient of DM and CP. In addition, a linear increase of MY, fat corrected milk (FCM) and daily production of fat, protein, lactose, casein and total solids was observed. A linear increase in ruminal ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration and nitrogen excretion in milk, feces and urine was also observed. However, there was no observed effect on SCFA concentration. In experiment 2, the increase of the RDP from 80 to 120 increased the DMI, MY, FCM, milk protein content and digestibility coefficient of the NDF, ADF and ethereal extract. Additionally, there was an increase in NH3-N concentration and milk nitrogen excretion. The studies indicated that the increase of CP content up to 100 g RDP/kg DM increased the DMI and the productive performance of the cows, but also increased urine N. Thus, it is desirable that the increase of the CP through the increase of the RDP is carried out up to 100 g of RDP/kg DM, since there is elimination of nitrogen, decrease of milk yield and decrease of propionic acid in values above that level.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agle M, Hristov AN, Zaman S, Schneider C, Ndegwa PM, Vaddella VK. Effect of dietary concentrate on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and nitrogen losses in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93(9):4211-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2009-2977. PMid:20723695.

AOAC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. International official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Washington: AOAC; 1990.

AOAC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. 17th ed. Virginia: AOAC; 2000.

Arcari MA, Martins CMMR, Tomazi T, Gonçalves JL, Santos MV. Effect of substituting dry corn with rehydrated ensiled corn on dairy cow milk yield and nutrient digestibility. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2016;221:167-73. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.08.005.

Bahrami-Yekdangi H, Khorvash M, Ghorbani GR, Alikhani M, Jahanian R, Kamalian E. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97(6):3707-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6725. PMid:24679928.

Baker S, Hermann TL. Evaluating particle size. Manhattan (KS): Department of Grain Science and Industry. Kansas State University: 2002. Publ. MF-2051.

Bentley Instruments. Bentley 2000: operator’s manual. Chaska (MN): Bentley Instruments; 1995.

Broderick GA. Effects of varying dietary protein and energy levels on the production of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86(4):1370-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds. S0022-0302(03)73721-7. PMid:12741562.

Broderick GA, Reynal SM. Effect of source of rumendegraded protein on production and ruminal metabolism in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92(6):2822-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1865. PMid:19448016.

Broderick GA, Stevenson MJ, Patton RA. Effect of dietary protein concentration and degradability on response to rumen-protected methionine in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92(6):2719-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2008-1277.

Castillo AR, Kebreab E, Beever DE, France J. A review of efficiency of nitrogen utilization in dairy cows and its relationship with the environmental pollution. J Anim Feed Sci. 2000;9(1):1-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.22358/ jafs/68025/2000.

Colmenero JJO, Broderick GA. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ruminal nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2006a;89(5):1694-703. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72237-8. PMid:16606740.

Colmenero JJO, Broderick GA. Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2006b;89(5):1704-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72238-X. PMid:16606741.

Dado RG, Allen MS. Intake limitations, feeding behavior, and rumen function of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inert bulk. J Dairy Sci. 1995;78(1):118- 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76622-X. PMid:7738249.

Huber JT, Cook RM. Influence of site of administration of urea on voluntary intake of concentrate by lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 1972;55(10):1470-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(72)85696-0. PMid:4672907.

Ipharraguerre IR, Clark JH. Varying protein and starch in the diet of dairy cows. II. Effects on performance and nitrogen utilization for milk production. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88(7):2556-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022- 0302(05)72932-5. PMid:15956317.

Kalscheur KF, Baldwin RL 6th, Glenn BP, Kohn RA. Milk production of dairy cows fed differing concentrations of rumen-degraded protein. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89(1):249-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72089-6. PMid:16357288.

Kebreab E, France J, Beever DE, Castillo AR. Nitrogen pollution by dairy cows and its mitigation. nutrient cycling in agroecosystems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. 2001;60(1/3):275- 85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012668109662.

Kertz AF. Urea feeding to dairy cattle: a historical perspective and review. Prof Anim Sci. 2010;26(3):257-72. http://dx.doi. org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30593-3.

Lammers BP, Buckmaster DR, Heinrichs AJ. A simple method for the analysis of particle sizes of forage and total mixed rations. J Dairy Sci. 1996;79(5):922-8. http://dx.doi. org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76442-1. PMid:8792291.

Lee C, Hristov AN, Cassidy TW, Heyler KS, Lapierre H, Varga GA, de Veth MJ, Patton RA, Parys C. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95(10):6042-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2012-5581. PMid:22863104.

Martins CMMR, Arcari MA, Welter K, Gonçalves JL, Santos MV. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows. Animal. 2016;10(1):64-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ S1751731115001548. PMid:26289745.

Mendonça SS, Campos JMS, Valadares SC Fo. Intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition and ruminal variables of dairy cows fed sugar cane based diets. Rev Bras Zootec. 2004;33:481-92. http://dx.doi. org/10.1590/S1516-35982004000200027.

Mutsvangwa T, Davies KL, McKinnon JJ, Christensen DA. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99(8):6298-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.2016-10917. PMid:27236760.

NRC: National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Washington: NRC; 2001.

Pereira MLA, Valadares SC Fo, Valadares RFD. Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in mid lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate. Rev Bras Zootec. 2005;34(3):1029-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S1516-35982005000300036.

Rius AGS, Kittelmann S, MacDonald KA, Waghorn GC, Janssen PH, Sikkema E. Nitrogen metabolism and rumen microbial enumeration in lactating cows with divergent residual feed intake fed high-digestibility pasture. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95(9):5024-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012- 5392. PMid:22916906.

SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STATTM. SAS user’s guide for windowns environment. 6.11 ed. Cary: SAS Institute; 1995.

Savari M, Khorvash M, Amanlou H, Ghorbani GR, Ghasemi E, Mirzaei M. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101(2):1111-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017- 12776. PMid:29224859.

Sklan D, Kaim M, Moallem U, Folman Y. Effect of dietary calcium soaps on milk yield, body weight, reproductive hormones, and fertility in first parity and older cows. J Dairy Sci. 1994;77(6):1652-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ jds.S0022-0302(94)77107-1. PMid:8083425.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci. 1991;74(10):3583- 97. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2. PMid:1660498.

Vaz Pires A, Susin I, Santos FAP, Mendes CQ, Oliveira RC Jr, Fernandes JJR, Simas JMC. Effect of starch sources and processing on performance and nitrogen metabolism in lactating holstein cows. Rev Bras Zootec. 2008;37(8):1456- 62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982008000800017.

Wang C, Liu JX, Yuan ZP, Wu YM, Zhai SW, Ye HW. Effect of level of metabolizable protein on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90(6):2960-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-129. PMid:17517736.

Downloads

Published

2020-10-07

How to Cite

Alves, B. G., Martins, C. M. de M. R., Sousa, D. de O., Arcari, M. A., Rennó, F. P., & Santos, M. V. (2020). Levels and degradability of crude protein in digestive metabolism and performance of dairy cows. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 57(3), e168157. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2020.168157

Issue

Section

FULL ARTICLE

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)