Reproductive failures associated with antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
This study aimed at assessing the occurrence of antibodies against the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, as well as the associations between the presence of antibodies and the occurrence of reproductive failures in goats. Serum samples were collected from 923 goats of both sexes, over 3 months of age, from 17 dairy farms located in different municipalities of São Paulo State, Brazil. Infections by T. gondii, N. caninum and CAEV were evaluated by indirect methods of diagnosis based on indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), Neospora agglutination test (NAT), and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), respectively. A survey was conducted on the farms to obtain information about reproduction dates (abortions, stillbirths and births of weak and premature kids) and zoosanitary management. Antibodies against CAEV, T. gondii and N. caninum was found in 37.81%, 23.62% and 17.23% respectively. There was no significant association between the presence of anti-CAEV antibodies and CAEV/T. gondii or CAEV/N. caninum co-infection, suggesting that CAEV does not predispose goats to infection by these agents. However, when CAEV/T. gondii (p<0.01) or CAEV/N. caninum (p<0.001) co-infection was present, the occurrence of reproductive failures was significantly higher what could indicate that CAEV-induced immunosuppression may predispose goats to develop the clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis increasing the risks of the reproductive failures.
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