Genealogia e historicismo crítico: dois modelos de Esclarecimento nos escritos de Horkheimer e Adorno

  • John Abromeit State University of New York - Buffalo State
Palavras-chave: Esclarecimento, historicismo, Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Escola de Frankfurt

Resumo

Este artigo sustenta que dois conceitos distintos de Esclarecimento coexistem em tensão na Dialética do esclarecimento de Horkheimer e  Adorno. De acordo com o primeiro conceito, genealógico, o Esclarecimento é uma forma confusa de autopreservação que existiu desde a aurora da civilização ocidental. O segundo conceito, historicista crítico, concebe como Esclarecimento os ideais críticos e antiautoritários articulados – mais radicalmente na França do século XVIII – durante o irregular desenvolvimento da sociedade burguesa moderna. Depois de examinar as origens destes dois conceitos nos primeiros escritos de Adorno e Horkheimer, este artigo demonstra porque o primeiro conceito se tornou dominante na Dialética do esclarecimento, ao mesmo tempo apontando traços significativos do segundo conceito que ali permaneceram. Argumenta-se que uma reconsideração do conceito historicista crítico revela um modelo de Teoria Crítica inicial que ainda pode fornecer uma alternativa convincente não apenas para a Dialética do esclarecimento, mas também para as tentativas mais recentes de situar a Teoria Crítica em fundamentos normativos.

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Publicado
2017-10-04
Como Citar
Abromeit, J. (2017). Genealogia e historicismo crítico: dois modelos de Esclarecimento nos escritos de Horkheimer e Adorno. Cadernos De Filosofia Alemã: Crítica E Modernidade, 22(2), 13-38. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-9800.v22i2p13-38
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Artigos