Randomized clinical trial of encapsulated and hand-mixed glass-ionomer ART restorations: one-year follow-up

  • Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra Freitas Grupo Educacional DeVry; Faculdade DeVry FACID
  • Ticiane Cestari Fagundes UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista; Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba; Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora
  • Karin Cristina da Silva Modena Universidade do Sagrado Coração; Centro de Ciências da Saúde
  • Guilherme Saintive Cardia UniCesumar
  • Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru; Departamento de Dentística, Endodontia e Materiais Odontológicos
Keywords: Dental caries, Clinical trial, Glass ionomer cements


Objective This prospective, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Riva Self-Cure, SDI), supplied in capsules or in powder/liquid kits and placed in Class I cavities in permanent molars by the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. Material and Methods A total of 80 restorations were randomly placed in 40 patients aged 11-15 years. Each patient received one restoration with each type of GIC. The restorations were evaluated after periods of 15 days (baseline), 6 months, and 1 year, according to ART criteria. Wilcoxon matched pairs, multivariate logistic regression, and Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Patients were evaluated after 15 days (n=40), 6 months (n=34), and 1 year (n=29). Encapsulated GICs showed significantly superior clinical performance compared with hand-mixed GICs at baseline (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.001), and 1 year (p=0.026). For hand-mixed GIC, a statistically significant difference was only observed over the period of baseline to 1 year (p=0.001). Encapsulated GIC presented statistically significant differences for the following periods: 6 months to 1 year (p=0.028) and baseline to 1 year (p=0.002). Encapsulated GIC presented superior cumulative survival rate than hand-mixed GIC over one year. Importantly, both GICs exhibited decreased survival over time. Conclusions Encapsulated GIC promoted better ART performance, with an annual failure rate of 24%; in contrast, hand-mixed GIC demonstrated a failure rate of 42%.


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