YOUNG OFFENDERS IN BRAZIL: MENTAL HEALTH AND FACTORS OF RISK AND PROTECTION

  • Maria Denise Pessoa e Silva Department of Occupational Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)
  • Thelma Simões Matsukura Department of Occupational Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)
  • Maria Fernanda Barboza Cid Department of Occupational Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)
  • Martha Morais Minatel Federal University of Sergipe (UFS)

Resumo

Introduction: The literature has indicated that young offenders may show varied problems of mental health; however, in Brazil a limited number of studies are focused on that question. Objective: Identify the health, self-esteem and social support levels of male young offenders complying with not confined socio-educational measures, the parenting styles adopted towards them and identify the relationship between these variables. Methods: It is an exploratory and correlational study in which 33 male young offenders aged between 14 and 18 years who attend the socio-educational programme of a mid-size city in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, took part on the study, they answered specific instruments to appraise different variables of focus. Results: The results indicate that 67% of the adolescents presented mental health disorders; 84% perceive that the social support received is below “low” or “medium”, and 33% judge the parental style of their caregiver as a risk. The greater the negligence and poor support of the family and caregivers, the lower the self-esteem of young offenders. Conclusions: Most of the adolescents had mental health disorders and evaluated the social support received as low or medium. All participants evaluated negatively the parental style adopted by their parents. The parental style used was considered below average and risky. Furthermore, was observed that the lower the self-esteem of the adolescents and the lower the family support perceived by them, the higher was the degree of parental negligence evaluated. It is understood that these results reinforce the need for intersectoral coordination in actions aimed at this population.

Referências

Rutter M. Resilience in the face of adversity. Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 1985; 147(6):598-611. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp. 147.6.598

Hutz CS (org.) Situações de risco e vulnerabilidade na infância e na adolescência: aspectos teóricos e estratégias de intervenção. In: Reppold CT, Pacheco J, Bardagi M, Hutz C. Prevenção de problemas de comportamento e desenvolvimento de competências psicossociais em crianças e adolescentes: uma análise das práticas educativas e dos estilos parentais. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo. 2002.

Sapienza G, Pedromônico MRM. Risco, proteção e resiliência no desenvolvimento da criança e do adolescente. Psicol Estudo. Maringá: 2005; 10(2): 209-16.

Gallo AE, Williams LCA. Adolescentes em conflito com a lei: uma revisão dos fatores de risco para a conduta infracional. Psicologia: Teoria Prática. 2005; 7(1): 81-95.

Garguilo RM. Special Education in contemporary society: an introduction to exceptionality. Alabama: Thomson Learning; 2003.

Priuli RMA, Moraes MS. Adolescentes em conflito com a lei. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva. 2007; Rio de Janeiro: 12(5): 1185-92. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232007000500015

Karnik NS, Soller M, Redlich A, Silverman M, Kraemer HC, Haapanen R, et al. Prevalence of and gender differences in psychiatric disorders among juvenile delinquents incarcerated for nine months. Psychiatr Serv. 2009; 60(6): 838-41. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps. 60.6.838

Oliván GG. Delinquent adolescents: health problems and health care guidelines for juvenile correctional facilities. An Esp Pediatr. 2002; 57(4): 345-53.

Teplin LA, Abram KM, McClelland GM, Dulcan MK, Mericle AA. Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Arc General Psychiatry. 2002;59(12): 1133-43.

Andrade RC, Assumpção Junior F, Teixeira IA, Fonseca VAS. Prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos em jovens infratores na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil): estudo de gênero e relação com a gravidade do delito. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva. Rio de Janeiro: 2008; 16(4): 2179-88. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232011000400017

Silva MDFDT, Farias MA, Silvares EFM, Arantes MC. Adversidade familiar e problemas comportamentais entre adolescentes infratores e não infratores. Psicol Estudo. 2008; 13(4): 791-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/

S1413-73722008000400017

Pinho SR, Dunningham W, Aguiar WM, Andrade AS, Guimarães K, Guimarães K, et al. Morbidade psiquiátrica entre adolescentes em conflito com a lei. J Bras Psiquiatr. Rio de Janeiro: 2006; 55(2): 126-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0047-20852006000200006

Costa CRBSF, Assis GS. Fatores protetivos a adolescentes em conflito com a lei no contexto socieducativo. Psicol Soc. Porto Alegre: 2006; 18(3):74-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-71822006000300011

Goodman R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997; 38(5): 581-6.

Fleitlich B, Goodman R. Social factors associated with child mental health problems in Brazil: cross sectional survey. BMJ. 2001; 323(7313): 599-600. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7313.599

Avanci JQ, Assis SG, Santos NC, Oliveira RVC. Adaptação transcultural de escala de autoestima para adolescentes. Psicol Reflex Crít. 2007; 20(3): 397-405. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722007000300007

Squassoni CE, Matsukura TS. Adaptação Trans-cultural da versão portuguesa do Social Support Appraisals para o Brasil. Psicol Reflex Crit. 2014; 27(1): 71-80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722014000100009

Gomide PIC. Inventário de estilos parentais: modelo teórico, manual de aplicação, apuração e interpretação. Petrópolis: Editora Vozes; 2006.

Gallo AE, Williams LCA. A escola como fator de proteção à conduta infracional de adolescentes. Cad Pesqui. 2008; 38(133): 41-59. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-1574200 8000100003

Farrell AD, Sullivan TN, Esposito LE, Meyer AL, Valois RF. A latent growth curve analysis of the structure of aggression, drug use, and delinquent behaviors and their interrelations over time in urban and rural adolescent. J Res

Adolesc. 2005; 15(2): 179-204. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00091.x

Gatti U, Tremblay RE, Vitaro F, McDuff P. Youth gang, delinquency and drug use: a test of the selection, facilitation, and enhancement hypotheses. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005; 46(11): 1178-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.00423.x

Rigoni MS, Oliveira MS, Moraes JFD, Zambom LF. O consumo de maconha na adolescência e as conseqüências nas funções cognitivas. Psicol Estudo. 2007; 12(2): 267-75.http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-73722007000200007

Heim J, Andrade AG. Efeitos do uso do álcool e das drogas ilícitas no comportamento de adolescentes de risco: uma revisão das publicações científicas entre 1997 e 2007. Rev Psiq Clín. 2008; 35 (Supl.1): 61-64. http://

dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-6083200 8000700013

Francischini R, Campos HR. Adolescente em conflito com a lei e medidas socioeducativas: limites e (im)possibilidades. Psico. 2005; 36(3): 267-73.

Bazílio LC, Kramer S. Infância, educação e direitos humanos. São Paulo: Cortez; 2003.

Cruz L, Hillesheim B, Guareschi NMF. Infância e políticas públicas: um olhar sobre as práticas psi. Psicol Soc. 2005; 17(3): 42-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-71822005000300006

Demaray MK, Malecki CK, Davidson LM, Hodgson KK, Rebus PJ. The relationship between social support and student adjustment: a longitudinal analysis. Psychol Schools. 2005; 42(7): 691-706. http://dx.doi. org/10.1002/pits.20120

Harter S, Waters PL, Whitesell NR. Relational self-worth: differences in perceived worth as a person across interpersonal contexts among adolescents. Child Dev. 1998; 69(3): 756-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1132202

Antunes C, Fontaine AM. A relação entre o conceito de si próprio e percepção de apoio social na adolescência. Cad Consulta Psicol. Porto: 1996; 12: 81-92.

Publicado
2015-10-20
Seção
Pesquisa Original