Characteristics of sleep habits among adolescents living in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP)


  • Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
  • Adriana L Louro
  • Ieda R L Del Ciampo Medical School, Federal University of São Carlos
  • Ivan S Ferraz Departament of Puericulture and Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo



adolescent, sleep, sleep hygiene, sleep stages


Introduction: Adolescence is the period of transition between childhood and adult life, characterized by changes in physical, emotional, sexual and social development. Although during this phase most individuals are healthy, it is known that health status is related to behaviors and habits such as a healthy diet, the regular practice of physical activity and good sleep quality, which contribute to optimum physical and cognitive performance

Objective: To determine some sleep characteristics of adolescents living in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP).

Methods: this was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at 14 schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP) including adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who answered a questionnaire about sleep habits. The chi-square test was used to determine differences between genders with the aid of the EPI-INFO 7 software, with the level of significance set at p<0.05.

Results: A total of 535 adolescents (65% girls) were included in the study. Of these, 47.7% studied during the morning period and 10.3% had a job and studied in the evening period. Regarding sleep duration, 242 (45%) slept less than 9 hours per night during week days and 256 (48%) during the weekends (Saturday and Sunday), Of the total number of adolescents studied, 75.5% reported that they went to bed when they felt sleepy, 90% reported delay in falling asleep, 84.3% used some type of electronic equipment before going to sleep, and 44% reported that they woke up during the night. In the morning, 70.3% needed to be awakened, and 44.7% reported a delay in waking up. During the daytime, 70% felt somnolent and 34% reported that they slept during the day. Girls reported that they felt more daytime sleepiness (71.3%) and slept more during the day (62.1%) than boys (28.7% and 37.9%, respectively), with the difference being statistically significant (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Almost half the adolescents investigated sleep less than the minimum time considered ideal. Furthermore, the most of adolescents went to the bed when they felt sleepy, used electronic devices before to sleep, had difficulties to fall asleep, need to be awake in the morning and felt sleepy during the day. A substantial proportion of adolescents studied awoke at night and slept during the day. Compared to boys, girls felt sleepy and slept during the day significantly.



Brand S, Kirov R. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent psychiatric conditions. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:425-42. DOI:

Owens J, Au R, Carskadon M, Millman R, Wolfson A, Braverman Pk, et al. Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences. Pediatrics. 2014;134(3):e921-32. DOI:

Porkka-Heiskanen T, Zitting KM, Wigren HK. Sleep, its regulation and possible mechanisms of sleep disturbances. Acta Physiol. 2013;208(4):311-28. DOI:

Foti KE, Eaton DK, Lowry R, McKnight-Ely LR. Sufficient sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(6):596-602. DOI:

Grandner MA, Patel NP, Gehrman PR, Perlis ML, Pack AI. Problems associated with short sleep: bridging the gap between laboratory and epidemiological studies. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14(4):239-47. DOI:

Williams JA, Zimmerman FJ, Bell F. Norms and trends of sleep time among US children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatr 2013;167(1):55-60. DOI:

Kurth S, Jenni OG, Riedner BA, Tononi G, Carskadon MA, Huber R. Characteristics of sleep slow waves in children and adolescents. Sleep. 2010; 33(4):475-80. DOI:

Bartel KA, Gradisar M, Williamson P. Protective and risk factors for adolescent sleep: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;21:72-85. DOI:

Paiva T, Gaspar T, Matos MG. Sleep deprivation in adolescents: correlations with health complaints and health-related quality of life. Sleep Med. 2015;16(4):521-7. DOI:

Piazzetta E, Del Ciampo LA, Zeppone SC. Características de sono e atividade física entre adolescentes do município de São Carlos (SP). Rev Bras Pesq Saúde. 2014;16(4):113-9. DOI:

Bat-Piatault F, Fonseca D. Réduction du temps de sommeil chez les adolescents: conséquences et prise en charge? Arch Ped. 2012;19(10):1095-9. DOI:

Gradisar M, Gardner G, Dohnt H. Recent worldwide sleep patterns and problems during adolescence: a review and meta-analysis of age, region, and sleep. Sleep Med. 2011;12(2):110-18. DOI:

Short MA, Gradisar M, Lack L, Wright H, Dewald J, Wolfson A, et al. A Cross-cultural comparison of sleep duration between US and Australian adolescents: the effect of school start time, parent-set bedtimes, and extracurricular load. Health Educ Behav. 2013;40(3):323-30. DOI:

Maume DJ. Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption. J Health Soc Behav. 2013;54(4):498-515. DOI:

Kilani H, Al-Hazzaa H, Waly MI, Musaiger A. Lifestyle habits: Diet, physical activity and sleep duration among Omani adolescents. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013;13(4):510-9.

Matthews KA, Hall M, Dahl RE. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents. Pediatrics. 2014;133(5):e1189-96. DOI:

Meldrum RC, Restivo E. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among US high school students: relative deprivation matters. Prev Med. 2014;63:24-8. DOI:

Pabayo R, Molnar BE, Street N, Kawachi I. The relationship between social fragmentation and sleep among adolescents living in Boston, Massachussetts. J Public Health. 2014;36(4):587-98. DOI:

Sarchiapone M, Mandelli L, Carli V, Iosue M, Wasserman C, Hadlaczky G, et al. Hours of sleep in adolescents and its association with anxiety, emotional concerns, and suicidal ideation. Sleep Med. 2014;15(2):248-54. DOI:

Maslowsky J, Ozer EJ. Developmental trends in sleep duration in adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence from a national United States sample. J Adolesc Health. 2014;54(6):691-7. DOI:

Barnes JC, Meldrun RC. The impact of sleep duration on adolescent development: a genetically informed analysis of identical twin pairs. J Youth Adolesc. 2014;44(2):1-18. DOI:

Yen CF, King BH, Tang TC. The association between short and long nocturnal sleep durations and risky behaviours and the moderating factors in Taiwanese adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179(1):69-74. DOI:

McKnight-Eily LR, Eaton DK, Lowry R, Croft JB, Presley-Cantrell L, Perry GS. Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students. Prev Med. 2011;53(4-5):271-3. DOI:

Short MA, Gradisar M, Gill J, Camfferman D. Identifying adolescent sleep problems. PloS One. 2013;8(9):e75301. DOI:

Colrain IM, Baker FC. Changes in sleep as a function of adolescent development. Neurophysicol Rev. 2011;21(1):5-21. DOI:

Weiss A, Xu F, Storfer-Isser A, Thomas A, Ievers-Landis CE, Redline S. The association of sleep duration with adolescents' fat and carbohydrate consumption. Sleep. 2010;33(9):1201-9. DOI:

Do YK, Shin E, Bautista MA, Foo K. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: What is the role of time spent on Internet use? Sleep Med. 2013;14(2):195-200. DOI:

Bernardo MPSL, Pereira EF, Louzada FM, D’Almeida V. Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. J Bras Psiquiatr. 2009;58(4):231-7. DOI:

Nuutinen T, Roos E, Ray C, Villberg J, Välimaa R, Rasmussen M, et al . Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms: a cross-sectional study of 15-year olds in three countries. Int J Public Health. 2014;59(4):619-28. DOI:

Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Labayen I, Kwak L, Harro J, Oja L, et al. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents. Eur J App Physiol. 2011;111(10):2615-23. DOI:

Stea T, Knutsen T, Torstveit MK. Association between short time in bed, health-risk behaviors and poor academic achievement among Norwegian adolescents. Sleep Med. 2014;15(6):666-71. DOI:

Garaulet M, Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Rey-Lopes JP, Beghin L, Manyos Y, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity markers in European adolescents: effect of physical activity and dietary habits. The HELENA study. Int J Obes. 2011;35(10):1308-17. DOI:

Mitchell JA, Rodriguez D, Schmitz HK, Audrain-McGovern J. Sleep duration and adolescent obesity. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1428-34. DOI:

Eaton DK, McKnight-Eily LR, Lowry R, Perry GS, Presley-Cantrell L, Croft JB. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline and optimal hours of sleep among high school students-United States, 2007. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(4):399-401. DOI:

Olds T, Blunden S, Perkov J, Forchino F. The relationships between sex, age, geography and time in bed in adolescents: a meta-analysis of data from 23 countries. Sleep Med Rev. 2010;14(6):371-8. DOI:

Knutson KL, van Cauter E, Rathouz PJ, DeLeire T, Lauderdale DS. Trends in the prevalence of short sleepers in the USA: 1975-2006. Sleep. 2010;33(1):37-45. DOI:

Pereira EF, Bernardo MPSL, D’Almeida V, Louzada FM. Sono, trabalho e estudo: duração do sono em estudantes trabalhadores e não trabalhadores. Cad Saúde Pública. 2011;27(5):975-84. DOI:

Teixeira LR. Lowden A, Turte SL, Nagai R, Moreno CR, Latorre MR, et al. Sleep and sleepiness among working and non-working high school evening students. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24(1):99-113. DOI:

Carskadon M, Acebo C, Jenni OG. Regulation of adolescent sleep: implications for behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1021:276-91. DOI:

Hoefelmann L, Lopes AS, Silva KS, Moritz P, Nahas MV. Sociodemographic factors associated with sleep quality and sleep duration in adolescents from Santa Catarina, Brazil: what changed between 2001 and 2011? Sleep Med. 2013;14(10):1017-23. DOI:

Noland H, Price JH, Dake J, Telljohann SK. Adolescents’ sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. J Sch Health. 2009;79(5):224-30. DOI:

Hallal PC, Wells JC, Reichert FF, Anselmi L, Victora CG. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study. BMJ. 2006;332(7548):1002-7. DOI:

Arora T, Broglia E, Thomas Neil, Taheri S. Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias. Sleep Med. 2014;15(2):240-7. DOI:

Zhou HQ, Shi WB, Wanf XF, Yao M, Cheng GY, Chen PY, et al. An epidemiological study of sleep quality in adolescents in South China: a school‐based study. Child Care Health Dev. 2012;38(4):581-7. DOI:

Mesquita G, Reimão R. Nightly use of computer by adolescents: its effect on quality of sleep. Arq Neuro-Psiquiatr. 2007;65(2b):428-32. DOI:

Clinkinbeard SS, Simi P, Evans MK, Anderson AL. Sleep and delinquency: does the amount of sleep matter? J Youth Adolesc. 2011;40(7):916-30. DOI:





Artigos Originais