Effects of two types of low impact physical training on screen time among overweight adolescents
Palavras-chave:Adolescents, obesity, screen time, hydrogimnastic, jump
Introduction: The time that adolescents spend in front of some screen as TV, computer, video games and mobile phones, has been considered a risk factor for obesity and non-communicable chronic diseases.
Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of two types of low impact training on the screen time and the BMI of overweight adolescents.
Methods: Sixty-seven adolescents were allocated into three groups: control group (CG); hydrogimnastic (HG); and jump (JG). The three groups had a weekly session of nutritional guidance; Additionally, the HG and JG trained 12 weeks with three weekly sessions ranging between 24 and 32 minutes as stage periodization training with hydrogimnastic and jump, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and screen time through a questionnaire created for this study in order to identify the amount of hours that adolescents passed in front of a screen. The questionnaire was carried out before and after the training period, as well as anthropometric assessments.
Results: There was no difference pre and post-intervention in screen time for the three groups, however, there was a decrease in BMI in both exercise groups of the pre-training period for post-training.
Conclusion: There was no reduction of the screen time, however the BMI decreased in the exercise groups.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766-81. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60460-8
Organización Panamericana de La Salud. World Health Organization (WHO). Obesidad, alimentación y actividad física. Washington: 2003. [cited 2016 Ouc 15] Available from:
Raitakari OT, Juonala M, Kähönen M, Taittonen L, Laitinen T, Mäki-Torkko N, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. JAMA. 2003;290(17):2277-83. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.17.2277
Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, Burns TL, Sabin MA, et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(20):1876-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1010112
Despres JP, Arsenault BJ, Côté M, Cartier A, Lemieux I. Abdominal obesity: the cholesterol of the 21st century? Can J Cardiol. 2008;24(Suppl D):7D-12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(08)71043-2
Després JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E, et al. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(6):1039-49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.159228
Vasconcellos MB, Anjos LA, Vasconcellos MTL. Estado nutricional e tempo de tela de escolares da Rede Pública de Ensino Fundamental de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2013;29(4):713-22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2013000400009
Blair SN. Physical inactivity: a major public health problem. Nutr Bul. 2007;32(2):113-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00632.x
Ness AR, Leary SD, Mattocks C, Blair SN, Reilly JJ, Wells J, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of children. PLoS Med. 2007;4(3):476-84. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040097
Leary SD, Ness AR, Smith GD, Mattocks C, Deere K, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and blood pressure in childhood: findings from a population-based study. Hypertension. 2008;51(1):92-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.099051
Oliveira AMA, Cerqueira EMM, Souza JS, Oliveira AC. Sobrepeso e Obesidade Infantil: Influência de Fatores Biológicos e Ambientais em Feira de Santana, BA. Arq Bras Endocrionol Metab. 2003;47(2):144-50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302003000200006
Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(11):1138-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr043743
Ekelund U, Brage S, Froberg K, Harro M, Anderssen SA, Sardinha LB, et al. TV viewing and physical activity are independently associated with metabolic risk in children: the European Youth Heart Study. PLoS Med. 2006;3(12):e488. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbmed.003048
Altenburg TM, Singh AS, van Mechelen W, Brug J, Chinapaw MJ. Direction of the association between body fatness and self-reported screen time in Dutch adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9(4):1-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-4
Anderson SE, Economos CD, Must A. Active play and screen time in US children aged 4 to 11 years in relation to sociodemographic and weight status characteristics: a nationally representative cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):366. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-366
Tassitano RM, Tenório MCM, Hallal PC. Revisão sistemática sobre obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros. Rev Bras Cineantr Desempenho Hum. 2009;11(4):449-56.
Goldfield GS, Mallory R, Parker T, Cunningham T, Legg C, Lumb A, et al. Effects of open-loop feedback on physical activity and television viewing in overweight and obese children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2006;118(1):157-66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-3052
Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85(9):660-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0042-96862007000900010
Laurson KR, Lee JA, Gentile DA, Walsh DA, Eisenmann JC. Concurrent Associations between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration with Childhood Obesity. ISRN Obes. 2014;(2014). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/204540
Carson V, Rosu A, Janssen I. A cross-sectional study of the environment, physical activity, and screen time among young children and their parents. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:61. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-61
García-Hermoso A, Marina R. Relationship of weight status, physical activity and screen time with academic achievement in adolescents. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2017;11(1):44-50. DOI: : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2015.07.006
Rey-López JP, Vicente-Rodríguez G, Répásy J, Mesana MI, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, et al. Food and drink intake during television viewing in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Pub Health Nutr. 2011;14(9):1563-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011000383
Nemet D, Barkan S, Epstein Y, Friedland O, Kowen G, Eliakim A. Short-and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary–behavioral–physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e443-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2172
Maddison R, Marsh S, Foley L, Epstein LH, Olds T, Dewes O, et al. Screen-time weight-loss intervention targeting children at home (SWITCH): a randomized controlled trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act.2014;11:111.
Faith MS, Berman N, Heo M, Pietrobelli A, Gallagher D, Epstein LH, et al. Effects of contingent television on physical activity and television viewing in obese children. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):1043-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.5.1043
Decelis A, Jago R, Fox KR. Physical activity, screen time and obesity status in a nationally representative sample of Maltese youth with international comparisons. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:664. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-664
Barros M, Formiga R, Neves A. Exergame Peggo - desenvolvimento de jogos de exercício físico-funcional para auxílio no combate da obesidade infantil. SBC Proc SBGames. 2013; 411-7.
Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999282(16):1561-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.16.1561
Bello FPS, Chagas NB, Pinto VLM, Camargo LLAL, Demarzo MMP, Germano CMR. Parental awareness of overweight and obesity: anexploratory study addressing low-income adolescents in Brazil. J Hum Growth Dev. 25(3):292-296. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7322/jhgd.106000
Reuter CP, Burgos MS, Pritsch CV, Silva PT, Marques KC, Souza S, et al. Obesidade, aptidão cardiorrespiratória, atividade física e tempo de tela em escolares da zona urbana e rural de Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. Cinergis. 2015;16(1):52-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17058/cinergis.v16i1.6271
Munaro HLR, Silva DAS, Lopes AS. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in a school from a city in the northeast of Brazil. J Hum Growth Dev. 2016;26(3): 360-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7322/jhgd.122821
CODE OF CONDUCT FOR JOURNAL PUBLISHERS
Publishers who are Committee on Publication Ethics members and who support COPE membership for journal editors should:
- Follow this code, and encourage the editors they work with to follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Edi- tors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf)
- Ensure the editors and journals they work with are aware of what their membership of COPE provides and en- tails
- Provide reasonable practical support to editors so that they can follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Editors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf_)
- Define the relationship between publisher, editor and other parties in a contract
- Respect privacy (for example, for research participants, for authors, for peer reviewers)
- Protect intellectual property and copyright
- Foster editorial independence
Publishers should work with journal editors to:
- Set journal policies appropriately and aim to meet those policies, particularly with respect to:
– Editorial independence
– Research ethics, including confidentiality, consent, and the special requirements for human and animal research
– Transparency and integrity (for example, conflicts of interest, research funding, reporting standards
– Peer review and the role of the editorial team beyond that of the journal editor
– Appeals and complaints
- Communicate journal policies (for example, to authors, readers, peer reviewers)
- Review journal policies periodically, particularly with respect to new recommendations from the COPE
- Code of Conduct for Editors and the COPE Best Practice Guidelines
- Maintain the integrity of the academic record
- Assist the parties (for example, institutions, grant funders, governing bodies) responsible for the investigation of suspected research and publication misconduct and, where possible, facilitate in the resolution of these cases
- Publish corrections, clarifications, and retractions
- Publish content on a timely basis