Comparison and agreement of criteria for the BMI classification of physically active elderly women living in the Backlands, semi-arid Region
Palavras-chave:elderly, BMI, waist circumference, obesity
Introduction: The study of the nutritional status of the elderly deserves attention, since there is no consensus on the criteria for the evaluation of the Body Mass Index (BMI) of this population.
Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of elderly women practicing regular physical exercises, as well as to compare the World Health Organization (WHO) and Lipschitz criteria to the identification of health risk and to examine their agreement.
Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study with 76 elderly women in physical exercise groups in Petrolina-PE. The nutritional status was obtained by the calculation of BMI according to WHO and Lipschitz criteria. The analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the variables, followed by Tukey post hoc. The Kappa statistic established the agreement between the BMI criteria, the Spearman coefficient determined the correlation between BMI and abdominal circumference (AC).
Results: Elderly patients aged 60-79 years were classified as being overweight by WHO and eutrophic by Lipschitz. Octogenarian demonstrated eutrophy, according to the criterion of Lipschitz, WHO diverged for this group between thinness and eutrophy. There was a weak agreement between both criteria, Kappa (0.232, p = 0.002) and a strong correlation between BMI and CA (r = 0.722, p <0.001).
Conclusion: There was a divergence between the WHO and Lipschitz criteria. The WHO proved to be more sensitive to identifying overweight and obesity and Lipschitz's normal weight and malnutrition. The CA measure was more competent to detect health risk, especially in elderly eutrophic women.
Leal Neto JS, Barbosa AR, Meneghini V. Diseases and chronic health conditions, multimorbidity and body mass index in older adults. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2016;18(5):509-19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n5p509
World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva: WHO; 2000.
World Health Organization (WHO). Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee. Geneva: WHO; 1995.
Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-causemortality with overweight and obesity using standard bodymass index categories a systematic review andmeta-analysis. Jama. 2013;309(1):71-82. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.113905
Aslan AK, Starr JM, Pattie A, Deary I. Cognitive consequences of overweight and obesity in the ninth decade of life? Age Ageing. 2014;44(1):59-65. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afu108
Konig HH, Lehnert T, Brenner H, Schottker B, Quinzler R, Haefeli WE, et al. Health service use and costs associated with excess weight in older adults in Germany. Age Ageing. 2015;44(4):616-623. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afu120
Anjos LA. Indice de massa corporal (massa corporal.estatura-2) como indicador do estado nutricional de adultos: revisão da literatura. Rev Saude Publica. 1992;26(6):431-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101992000600009
Souza R, Fraga JS, Gottschall CBA, Busnello FM, Rabito EI. Avaliação antropométrica em idosos: estimativas de peso e altura e concordância entre classificações de IMC. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2013;16(1):81-90. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1809-98232013000100009
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adultsc, 1999-2010. Jama. 2012;307(5):491-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.39
Westphal P, Ferreira C, Adamczeski M, Camargo L, Santos R, Massaneiro AC, et al. Relação entre Índice de Massa Corporal de Quételet e o de Trefethen. Rev Centro Pesq Avançadas Qual Vida. 2016;8(3):1-6.
Chinedu SN, Ogunlana OO, Azuh DE, Iweala EEJ, Afalobi IS, Uhuegibu CC, et al. Correlation between body mass index and waist circumference in nigerian adults: implication as indicators of health status. J Public health Res. 2013;2(2):e16. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2013.e16
Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care. 1994;21(1):55-67.
Sardinha LB, Cyrino ES, Santos LD, Ekelund U, Santos DA. Fitness but not weight status is associated with projected physical independence in older adults. Age (Dordr). 2016;38(3):54. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-016-9911-4
Petroski EL. Antropometria: técnicas e padronizações. Várzea Paulista: Fontoura, 2011.
Almeida AV, Mafra SCT, Da Silva EP, Kanso S. A feminização da velhice: em foco as características socioeconômicas, pessoais e familiares das idosas e o risco social. Textos Context. 2015;14(1):115-31. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1677-9509.2015.1.19830
Salin MS, Mazo GZ, Cardoso ASA, Garcia GS. Atividade Física para idosos: diretrizes para implantação de programas e ações. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2011;14(2):197-208. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1809-98232011000200002
Vilaça KHC, Carneiro JAO, Pessanha FPAS, Lima NKC, Ferriolli E, Moriguti JC. Estudo comparativo da composição corporal de idosas fisicamente ativas pelos métodos DXA e antropométrico. Rev Bras Ciênc Mov. 2012;20(3):5-13.
Diniz KO, Rocha SV, Oliveira ACC. Anthropometric indicators of obesity such as predictors of high blood pressure in the elderly. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2017;19(1):31-9. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p31
Rocha FL, Melo RLP. Menezes TN. Fatores associados à síndrome metabólica em idosos do interior do Nordeste brasileiro. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2016;19(6):978-86. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1981-22562016019.160046
Amado TCF, Arruda IKG, Ferreira RAR. Aspectos alimentares, nutricionais e de saúde de idosas atendidas no Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso - NAI, Recife/2005. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007;57(4):366-72.
Arnau A, Espaulella J, Serrarols M, Canudas J, Formiga F, Ferrer M. Risk factors for functional decline in a population aged 75 years and older without total dependence: A one-year follow-up. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2016;65:239-47. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2016.04.002
Fisberg RM, Marchioni DML, Castro MA, Verly Junior E, Araújo MC, Bezerra IN, et al. Ingestão inadequada de nutrientes na população de idosos do Brasil: Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação 2008-2009. Rev Saude Publica. 2013;47(1 Supl.):222s-30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102013000200008
Sass A, Marcon SS. Comparação de medidas antropométricas de idosos residentes em área urbana no sul do Brasil, segundo sexo e faixa etária. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2015;18(2):261-72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-9823.2015.13048
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):379-84.
Bozeman SR, Hoaglin DC, Burton TM, Pashos CL, Ben-Joseph RH, Hollenbeak CS. Predicting waist circumference from body mass index. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12:115. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-115
CODE OF CONDUCT FOR JOURNAL PUBLISHERS
Publishers who are Committee on Publication Ethics members and who support COPE membership for journal editors should:
- Follow this code, and encourage the editors they work with to follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Edi- tors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf)
- Ensure the editors and journals they work with are aware of what their membership of COPE provides and en- tails
- Provide reasonable practical support to editors so that they can follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Editors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf_)
- Define the relationship between publisher, editor and other parties in a contract
- Respect privacy (for example, for research participants, for authors, for peer reviewers)
- Protect intellectual property and copyright
- Foster editorial independence
Publishers should work with journal editors to:
- Set journal policies appropriately and aim to meet those policies, particularly with respect to:
– Editorial independence
– Research ethics, including confidentiality, consent, and the special requirements for human and animal research
– Transparency and integrity (for example, conflicts of interest, research funding, reporting standards
– Peer review and the role of the editorial team beyond that of the journal editor
– Appeals and complaints
- Communicate journal policies (for example, to authors, readers, peer reviewers)
- Review journal policies periodically, particularly with respect to new recommendations from the COPE
- Code of Conduct for Editors and the COPE Best Practice Guidelines
- Maintain the integrity of the academic record
- Assist the parties (for example, institutions, grant funders, governing bodies) responsible for the investigation of suspected research and publication misconduct and, where possible, facilitate in the resolution of these cases
- Publish corrections, clarifications, and retractions
- Publish content on a timely basis