“I don’t know if I have the courage”: reproductive choices in times of Zika

  • Ana Rosa Linde Arias University of Massachusetts Boston, USA
  • Elisa Tristan-Cheever Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA
  • Grace Furtado University of Massachusetts-Boston, USA
  • Eduardo Siqueira University of Massachusetts Boston, USA
Palavras-chave: mulheres, Zika, direitos reprodutivos, aborto, escolhas reprodutivas

Resumo

Neste estudo transnacional, pretendemos fornecer informações sobre as opiniões e atitudes das mulheres em relação aos seus direitos reprodutivos durante a epidemia do Zika. Mulheres de diferentes nacionalidades e etnias foram recrutadas em vários locais do Brasil, Porto Rico e Estados Unidos. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas que sugerem que as decisões reprodutivas dos participantes estavam intimamente relacionadas às convicções pessoais e crenças culturais, e suas ações e pensamentos foram incorporados em suas normas socioculturais. A maioria das mulheres entrevistadas comunicou que é preciso coragem para tomar a decisão extrema, emocional e esmagadora de fazer um aborto. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que mulheres de diferentes países e regiões, e com diferentes níveis de capital social, enfrentam os mesmos conflitos relativos às decisões reprodutivas. Assim, defendemos a importância de considerar crenças e comportamentos culturais ao implementar medidas de prevenção ou proteção à saúde para controlar epidemias. Esta epidemia pode ser mais uma oportunidade para melhorar a saúde das mulheres, fortalecendo serviços de planejamento familiar culturalmente sensíveis e um amplo espectro de intervenções de saúde pública.

Biografia do Autor

Ana Rosa Linde Arias, University of Massachusetts Boston, USA

The Mauricio Gastón Institute for Community Development and Public Policy

Grace Furtado, University of Massachusetts-Boston, USA

The Mauricio Gastón Institute for Community Development and Public Policy

Eduardo Siqueira, University of Massachusetts Boston, USA

The School for the Environment

Referências

1. Gulland A. Zika virus is a global public health emergency, declares WHO. BMJ. 2016;352: i657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i657

2. McNeil Jr DG. Zika is no longer a global emergency: W.H.O. Says. The New York Times. [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/19/health/who-ends-zika-global-health-emergency.html.

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Virus 2017 Case Counts in the US: US territories. [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/zika/reporting/2017-case-counts.html.

4. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:951-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1600651

5. Brasil P, Pereira Jr JP, Moreira ME, Nogueira RMR, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(24):2321-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1602412

6. Kempner M. Why are some countries advising against pregnancy as the Zika Virus Spreads? [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://rewire.news/article/2016/02/01/countries-advising-pregnancy-zika-virusspreads/.

7. Boorstein M, Itkowitz C, Bailey S. Pope: Contraceptives could be morally permissible in avoiding spread of Zika. The Washington Post. [cited 2016 Feb 18] Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/social-issues/pope-contraceptives-could-be-morally-permissable-in-avoiding-spread-ofzika/2016/02/18/64d029de-d673-11e5-be55-2cc3c1e4b76b.

8. Conaway J. Abortion Rights Still Face Challenges in Several Latin American Countries. NotiSur - South Am Polit Econ Affairs. 2017;26(43).

9. Nash E, Gold RB, Ansari-Thomas Z, Cappello O, Mohammed L. Laws Affecting Reproductive Health and Rights: State Policy Trends at Midyear 2017. [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://www.guttmacher.org/ article/ 2017/07/laws-affecting-reproductive-health-and-rights-state-policy-trends-midyear-2017

10. Center for Reproductive Rights. The Legal Right to Abortion in Puerto Rico. Fact Sheet. [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://www.reproductiverights.org/document/the-legal-right-to-abortion-in-puerto-rico.

11. Lathrop E, Romero L, Hurst S, Bracero N, Zapata LB, Frey MT. The Zika Contraception Access Network: A feasibility programme to increase access to contraception in Puerto Rico during the 2016–17 Zika vírus outbreak. Lancet Public Health. 2018;3(2):e91-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30001-X

12. Programs Aim to Make LARC a Choice for Women. [cited 2018 Jan 29] Available from: https://www.reliasmedia.com/articles/142467-programs-aim-to-make-larc-a-choice-for-women.

13. Torjesen I, Zika Virus Outbreaks Prompt Warnings to Pregnant Women. BMJ 2016;352: i500.

14. Galli B. The Zika virus is a matter of reproductive injustice. [cited 2016 Feb 03] Available from: http://rhrealitycheck.org/article/2016/02/03/zika-virus-matter-reproductive-injustice-2/.

15. Ryan KJ. Humane abortion laws and the health needs of society. Res L Rev. 1965;17(2):424-34.

16. Swan C, Tostevin AL. Congenital abnormalities in infants following infectious diseases during pregnancy, with special reference to Rubella: third series of cases. Med J Austr. 1946;1(19):645-59.

17. Karrer R. The Formation of Michigan’s Anti-Abortion Movement 1967-1974. Michigan Historical Rev.1996;22(1):67-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/20173555

18. Mohr JC. abortion in America: the origins and evolution of national policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

19. Thompson M. Who’s guarding what? A post structural feminist analysis of Gardasil discourses. Health Commun. 2010;25(2):119-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10410230903544910

20. McNeil Jr DG. Health Officials Split Over Advice on Pregnancy in Zika Areas. The New York Times. [cited 2016 Feb 03] Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/15/health/zika-virus-pregnancy-delaybirth-defects-cdc.html.

21. Campos TC. Zika, public health, and the distraction of abortion. Med Health Care Philos. 2017;20(3):443-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-016-9739-9

22. Blanchard K, Starrs AM. Contraception, safe abortion, and the Zika response. Lancet. 2017;389(10079):1603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31010-3

23. Abraído-Lanza AF, Viladrich A, Flórez KR, Céspedes A, Aguirre AN, De La Cruz AA. Commentary: Fatalismo Reconsidered: A Cautionary Note for Health-Related Research and Practice with Latino Populations. Ethn Dis. 2007;17(1):153-8.

24. Daryani P. Zika’s Never Ending Emergency. Hopkins Bloomberg Public Health. [cited 2018 Jul 03] Available from: https://magazine.jhsph.edu/2018/zikas-ongoing-impact-babies-and-families-brazil.

25. Campesino M, Schwartz GE. Spirituality among Latinas/os implications of culture in conceptualization and measurement. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2006;29(1):69-81.

26. Prata ARS, Pedroso D, Menezes G, Drezett J, Torres JHR, Bonfim JRA, et al. Juridical perspectives of interruption of pregnancy with zika virus infection regarding medical, emotional and social consequences. J Hum Growth Dev. 2018;28(1):77-81. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7322/jhgd.14387

27. Lopes MHBM, Vilela MFG, Marques D, Silva EM. Zika virus infection in Brazil and its repercussions on reproductive health. J Communication Healthcare. 2018;11(1):62-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/175380 68.2017.1374917

28. Valente PK. Zika and Reproductive Rights in Brazil: Challenge to the Right to Health. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(9):1376-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303924

29. Camargo TMCR. The debate on abortion and Zika: lessons from the AIDS epidemic. Cad Saude Publica. 2016;32(5):e00071516. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00071516

30. Carabali M, Austin N, King NB, Kaufman Jay JS. The Zika epidemic and abortion in Latin America: a scoping review. Global Health Res Policy. 2018;3:15. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-018-0069-8

31. Collucci C. Brazilian attorneys demand abortion rights for women infected with Zika. BMJ. 2016;354:i4657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i4657

32. Diniz D. Zika virus, women and ethics. Dev World Bioeth. 2016;16(2):62-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/dewb.12119

33. Aiken ARA, Scott JG, Gomperts R, Trussell J, Worrell M, Aiken CE. Requests for abortion in Latin America related to concern about Zika virus exposure. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(4):396-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1605389

34. Diniz SG, Andrezzo HF. Zika virus – the glamour of a new illness, the practical abandonment of the mothers and new evidence on uncertain causality. Reprod Health Matters. 2017;25(49):21-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09688080.2017.1397442

35. Guttmacher Institute. Unintended pregnancies in United States. Fact Sheet. [cited 2016 Feb 03] Available from: https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/unintended-pregnancy-united-states.

36. Schram PCF. Zika virus and public health. J Hum Growth Dev. 2016;26(1): 7-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7322/jhgd.114415

37. Diniz D, Medeiros M, Madeiro A. Brazilian women avoiding pregnancy during Zika epidemic. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2016;43(1):80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jfprhc-2016-101678

38. Muñoz AG, Thomson MC, Stewart-Ibarra AM, Vecchi GA, Chourio X, Nájera P, et al. Could the recente Zika epidemic have been predicted? Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01291

39. Mordecai EA, Cohen JM, Evans MV, Gudapati P, Johnson LR, Lippi CA, et al. Detecting the impact of temperature on transmission of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya using mechanistic models. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(4):e0005568. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005568
Publicado
2019-05-06
Seção
Artigos Originais