Genetics and sport performance: current challenges and directions to the future

  • João Paulo Limongi França GUILHERME Universidade de São Paulo; Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
  • Aline Cristina Capparelli TRITTO Universidade de São Paulo; Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
  • Kathryn Nance NORTH University of Sidney; Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research
  • Antonio Herbert LANCHA JUNIOR Universidade de São Paulo; Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
  • Guilherme Giannini ARTIOLI Universidade de São Paulo; Escola de Educação Física e Esporte

Resumo

In recent years there has been a great progress in molecular biology techniques, which has facilitated the researches on influence of genetics on human performance. There are specific regions of DNA that can vary between individuals. Such variations (i.e., polymorphisms) may, in part, explain why some individuals have differentiated responses to certain stimuli, including the responses to sports training. In a particular sport, the presence of specific polymorphisms may contribute to high levels of performance. Since 1998, several polymorphisms have been associated with athletic phenotypes; however the accumulation of information generated over these 15 years shows that the influence of genetics to sport is extremely complex. In this review, we will summarise the current status of the field, discussing the implications of available knowledge for the practice of professionals involved with the sport and suggesting future directions for research. We also discuss topics related to the importance of polygenic profile characterization of athletes, methods for the identification of new polymorphisms associated with physical performance, the use of genetic testing for predicting competitive success, and how crucial is the genetic profile for the success athletes in competition.

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Publicado
2014-03-01
Como Citar
GUILHERME, J., TRITTO, A., NORTH, K., LANCHA JUNIOR, A., & ARTIOLI, G. (2014). Genetics and sport performance: current challenges and directions to the future. Revista Brasileira De Educação Física E Esporte, 28(1), 177-193. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-55092014000100177
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