Schizophrenia: neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration or neurodevelopment? A genetic overview

  • Gabriel Berlingieri Polho Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina
  • Vanessa de Jesus Rodrigues de Paula Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Psiquiatria
Palavras-chave: Schizophrenia/genetics, Neurodevelopmental disorders/genetics, Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration/genetics, Neurogenetic inflammation/genetics, Genetics.

Resumo

Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness and its etiology is still largely unknown. Several gene mapping studies suggest that schizophrenia is a complex disorder, with a cumulative impact of variable genetic effects coupled with environmental factors. There is evidence that schizophrenia could be a neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory or neurodevelopmental disorder. Neuropsychological data indicate neurocognitive functions are relatively stable over time after illness onset, whereas morphological data indicate a degenerative process; potential roles of neuroinflammation in the etiology of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia have also been suggested. Recent research indicates genetic overlap between schizophrenia and syndromes in which psychopathology manifests in childhood and that are often grouped together as ‘neurodevelopmental disorders’. These findings challenge the etiological basis of current diagnostic categories and, together with evidence for frequent comorbidity, suggest that we should view the functional psychoses as members of a group that result in part from a combination of genetic and environmental effects on brain development and that are associated with specific and general impairments of cognitive function. The objective was to perform a systematic literature review of articles on genetics of schizophrenia relating to neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and neurodevelopment. After proper filter, we included 40 studies and reviewed each finding and its relevance to the hypotheses. We can conclude that the evidence points to schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disease with the direct presence of factors related to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

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Biografia do Autor

Gabriel Berlingieri Polho, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina

Psychiatry - Monographs Awards. XXXV COMU - Congresso Médico Universitário da FMUSP, São Paulo, 14-16 out. 2016.
Laboratory of Neuroscience (LIM 27), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Vanessa de Jesus Rodrigues de Paula, Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Psiquiatria
Psychiatry - Monographs Awards. XXXV COMU - Congresso Médico Universitário da FMUSP, São Paulo, 14-16 out. 2016.
PhD. Genetics and Pharmacogenetics Unit (LIM 23), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Publicado
2017-03-20
Como Citar
Polho, G., & Paula, V. (2017). Schizophrenia: neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration or neurodevelopment? A genetic overview. Revista De Medicina, 96(1), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1679-9836.v96i1p39-48
Seção
Artigos de Revisão