A prática de individualização de crânios e de decapitação na região de Lagoa Santa durante o Holoceno Inicial (Brasil)

Autores

  • Andre Strauss Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen Centro de Arqueologia Annette Laming-Emperaire Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Universidade de São Paulo
  • Rodrigo Elias Oliveira Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2017.121839

Palavras-chave:

Arqueologia, Antropologia, História, Ritual, Lapa do Santo.

Resumo

Por mais envoltos que estivessem em práticas cruéis de flagelação humana, os europeus ficaram fascinados com os costumes ameríndios que envolviam a remoção e a exibição de partes do corpo humano, especialmente quando a prática da decapitação ou individualização de crânios estava presente. Na América do Sul, o caso mais antigo de decapitação é relatado na região andina com ca. 3000 AP no sítio Ásia 1 (Peru). Uma vez que quase todos os outros casos arqueológicos da América do Sul também ocorreram nos Andes (por exemplo, Nazca, Moche, Huari e Tiahuanaco), assumiu-se que a decapitação foi um fenômeno andino, tanto em suas origens como em sua expressão mais inequívoca. Esta contribuição tem como objetivo avaliar as evidências disponíveis sobre a decapitação na América do Sul e relatar a descoberta no Brasil de diversos casos de crânios individualizados, que estão datados em torno de 9000-9500 cal BP (intervalo de 95,4%). Escavados no abrigo da Lapa do Santo, em Lagoa Santa (MG), esses casos de crânios individualizados incluem a decapitação mais antiga do Novo Mundo, implicando uma reavaliação da origem e da dispersão geográfica desse fenômeno no continente.

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Biografia do Autor

Andre Strauss, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen Centro de Arqueologia Annette Laming-Emperaire Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Universidade de São Paulo

Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen; Centro de Arqueologia Annette Laming-Emperaire; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Human Evolution; Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva.

Rodrigo Elias Oliveira, Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Periodontia; Centro de Arqueologia Annette Laming-Emperaire.

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2017-12-31

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Strauss, A., & Oliveira, R. E. (2017). A prática de individualização de crânios e de decapitação na região de Lagoa Santa durante o Holoceno Inicial (Brasil). Revista Do Museu De Arqueologia E Etnologia, (28). https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2017.121839

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