Primary pituitary tuberculosis
Keywords:Tuberculosis, Granuloma, Adenoma, Pituitary Gland
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that involves any organ. However, the primary pituitary tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease. Intracranial tuberculomas account for 0.15-5% of intracranial space-occupying lesions, of which, pituitary as the primary site is unusual, and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenoma. In this setting, the late diagnosis can result in permanent endocrine dysfunction. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the neurosurgery outpatient department with complaints of progressively increasing headache and diminished vision over the last year. On the clinical examination, the patient was conscious and oriented. The routine hematological and biochemical workup showed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and increased prolactin levels. The radiological working diagnosis was consistent with pituitary macroadenoma. No other radiological and/or clinical clue that could elicit the suspicion of pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesions of tuberculosis was found. The transsphenoidal endonasal tumor excision was done. The histopathology showed numerous epithelioid cell granulomas, Langhans giant cells along with scant necrosis. Ziehl Neelsen staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli, and the final diagnosis of pituitary tuberculoma was made. We report this rare case of pituitary lesion that may be included in the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions to avoid unnecessary surgical interventions, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.
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