Attractives to africanized honey bees and pollination in coffee flowers (Coffea arabica L.)
Keywords:Attractives, Coffea arabica, Pollination, Apis mellifera
AbstractThe present experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, to study the frequency and behaviour of insects with respect coffee (Coffea arabica L., var. Mundo Novo) flowers, the effect insects on fruit production, forage types of more frequent bees and the effectiveness of Bee-HereR (Hoescht Shering Agrevo do Brasil Ltda) attractant on honeybee visits. For that the time of development and the amount of soluble sugar of the nectar of the flowers were verified, frequency of the visitations of the insects in elapsing of the day by means of insects number visiting the flowers, to every 60 minutes, of 8:00 at the 17 hours, 10 minutes in every schedule; time (in seconds) and collection type (nectar and/or pollen) ; loss of floral buttons; percentage of flowers that they became fruits; time of formation and number of coffee grains, being observed the fruition percentage in visited flowers or not for the insects. Tests were also accomplished by spraying being used the product Bee-Here, diluted in syrup and in water in different schedules. The flower lasted on the average about 3 days from its opening to the withering. The amount of soluble sugar of the nectar presented significant difference among the schedules, being larger at the 8 hours (on the average, 102.18 ± 8,75 mg of glucose for flower). The most frequent insect to visit the coffee flowers was the africanized honey bees, collecting mainly nectar during the day. The number of fruits in the uncovered treatment was 38,79% and 168,38% higher in 1993 and 1994, respectively, than the covered ones. In spite of the efficiency of the product Bee-HereR to be affected by climatic conditions, it can be used to attract honeybees in coffee orchards.
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