Determination of acute median lethal concentration and sublethal effects on AChE activity of Gymnotus carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae) exposed to trichlorfon


  • Giovanni Henrique Ferri Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal
  • Israel Luz Cardoso Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas
  • Juliana Augusta Gil Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal
  • Claudio Martin Jonsson Embrapa Meio Ambiente
  • Francisco Tadeu Rantin Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas
  • Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Animal ; Embrapa Meio Ambiente



Organophosphate, Environment, Non-target organisms, Biomarkers, Tuviras


Trichlorfon (TRF) is a pesticide widely used in aquaculture to control fish ectoparasites. This pesticide is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an essential enzyme for termination of nerve impulses. High rates of TRF use generate risks to the environment and human health. In the environment, pesticides can affect the local fauna and generate an ecological breakdown. There are several studies performed with fish production; however, gaps are created for native fish with other commercial values. The tuvira (Gymnotus carapo) is a fish native to Brazilian fauna and has great commercial importance in sport fishing. The present study aimed to determine the lethal concentration of trichlorfon (Masoten) in Gymnotus carapo and its sublethal effects on the enzyme AChE. In this study, the acute toxicity (the concentrations to kill 50% of the fish LC50) of TRF in tuviras (Gymnotus carapo) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in liver and muscle tissue of tuviras submitted to sublethal concentrations were evaluated. For the acute assay, concentrations of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30, 37.5 and 45 mg L-1 were used for a period of 96 h. After the acute exposure period, a LC50 of 6.38 mg L-1 was determined. In the sublethal assay, concentrations of 0.0, 0.238, 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1 were used, based on 10% of the LC50, over a period of 14 days. Two collections were performed: one at seven days and the other at the end (day 14). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the liver was only shown (p < 0.05) for the treatment with 0.638 mg L-1 after 14 days of exposure. At seven days, muscle activity showed a significant difference only for the treatments 0.438 and 0.638 mg L-1, compared with the treatment 0.238 mg L-1 and control. At 14 days of exposure, only the treatment 0.638 mg L-1 showed significant differences in relation to the other groups, thus showing that enzyme recovery had occurred. The value found in the acute test allowed the conclusion that TRF presents moderately toxic characteristics to Gymnotus carapo. The toxicity parameter values calculated in the present study assisted in estimation of maximum allowable limits in bodies of water when combined with test data from other non-target organisms.


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How to Cite

Ferri, G. H., Cardoso, I. L., Gil, J. A., Jonsson, C. M., Rantin, F. T., & Ishikawa, M. M. (2020). Determination of acute median lethal concentration and sublethal effects on AChE activity of Gymnotus carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae) exposed to trichlorfon. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 57(3), e169354.