Rare and unknown canine systemic mastocytosis: clinical and laboratory features of an aberrant c-Kit mutation neoplasia





Eosinophilia, Hepatomegaly, C-Kit mutation, Systemic mastocytosis


Systemic mastocytosis (SM) pathology is extremely rare in canine practice, with insufficient reported data. The knowledge of the clinical behavior of this pathology is scarce. In human medicine, SM has been widely investigated, being defined as a rare hematopoietic disorder by the World Health Organization (2016), within the type of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Herein, we describe a systemic mastocytosis case in a Portuguese Serra-da-Estrela dog, where a cutaneous grade III/high-grade MCT was also diagnosed. The clinical decline of the animal and owner’s insistence throughout anamnesis that the dog was markedly different after the cytologic exam performed in another clinic, along with both severe eosinophilia and hepatomegaly, led to the clinical suspicion of SM. The animal passed away 7 days later. Post-mortem investigation confirmed SM pathology, and a deletion of 15 base pairs change on c-Kit gene exon 11 was identified. Contemplating the low number of cases described in the literature, this publication aims to disclose clinical and laboratory features of rare and poorly described canine SM, taking into consideration human outcomes described in the literature.


Download data is not yet available.


Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, Jepson RE, Papich M, Stepien RL, Syme HM. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32(6):1803-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15331. PMid:30353952.

Akin C. Mast cell activation syndromes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;140(2):349-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.007. PMid:28780942.

Blackwood L, Murphy S, Buracco P, De Vos JP, De Fornel-Thibaud P, Hirschberger J, Kessler M, Pastor J, Ponce F, Savary-Bataille K, Argyle DJ. European consensus document on mast cell tumours in dogs and cats. Vet Comp Oncol. 2012;10(3):1-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5829.2012.00341.x. PMid:22882486.

Camus MS, Priest HL, Koehler JW, Driskell EA, Rakich PM, Ilha MR, Krimer PM. Cytologic criteria for mast cell tumor grading in dogs with evaluation of clinical outcome. Vet Pathol. 2016;53(6):1117-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985816638721. PMid:27034386.

Freeman L, Becvarova I, Cave N, MacKay C, Nguyen P, Rama B, Takashima G, Tiffin R, van Beukelen P, Yathiraj S. WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines. J Feline Med Surg. 2011;13(7):516-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2011.05.009. PMid:21704901.

Kiupel M, Webster JD, Bailey KL, Best S, DeLay J, Detrisac CJ, Fitzgerald SD, Gamble D, Ginn PE, Goldschmidt MH, Hendrick MJ, Howerth EW, Janovitz EB, Langohr I, Lenz SD, Lipscomb TP, Miller MA, Misdorp W, Moroff S, Mullaney TP, Neyens I, O’Toole D, Ramos-Vara J, Scase TJ, Schulman FY, Sledge D, Smedley RC, Smith K, W. Snyder P, Southorn E, Stedman NL, Steficek BA, Stromberg PC, Valli VE, Weisbrode SE, Yager J, Heller J, Miller R. Proposal of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors to more accurately predict biological behavior. Vet Pathol. 2011;48(1):147-55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985810386469. PMid:21062911.

Marconato L, Zorzan E, Giantin M, Di Palma S, Cancedda S, Dacasto M. Concordance of c-kit mutational status in matched primary and metastatic cutaneous canine mast cell tumors at baseline. J Vet Intern Med. 2014;28(2):547-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.12266. PMid:24372836.

MetCalfe DD. Mast cells and mastocytosis. Blood. 2008;112(4):946-56. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-11-078097. PMid:18684881.

Misdorp W. Mast cells and canine mast cell tumours. A review. Vet Q. 2004;26(4):156-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2004.9695178. PMid:15663212.

Moon TC, Befus AD, Kulka M. Mast cell mediators: their differential release and the secretory pathways involved. Front Immunol. 2014;5:569. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00569. PMid:25452755.

Nakano Y, Kobayashi M, Bonkobara M, Takanosu M. Identification of a secondary mutation in the KIT kinase domain correlated with imatinib-resistance in a canine mast cell tumor. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2017;188:84-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2017.05.004. PMid:28615132.

O’Keefe DA, Couto CG, Burke-Schwartz C, Jacobs RM. Systemic mastocytosis in 16 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 1987;1(2):75-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1987.tb01990.x. PMid:3506091.

Pariser MS, Gram DW. Urticaria pigmentosa-like disease in a dog. Can Vet J. 2015;56(3):245-8. PMid:25750443.

Takahashi T, Kadosawa T, Nagase M, Matsunaga S, Mochizuki M, Nishimura R, Sasaki N. Visceral mast cell tumors in dogs: 10 cases (1982-1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000;216(2):222-6. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2000.216.222. PMid:10649758.

Tamlin VS, Dobson EC, Woolford L, Peaston AE. DNA purification increases PCR-amplifiable DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mast cell tumors for routine KIT mutation detection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2019;31(5):756-60. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638719867743. PMid:31378162.

Valent P, Akin C, Metcalfe DD. Mastocytosis: 2016 updated WHO classification and novel emerging treatment concepts. Blood. 2017a;129(11):1420-7. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-09-731893. PMid:28031180.

Valent P, Akin C, Hartmann K, Nilsson G, Reiter A, Hermine O, Sotlar K, Sperr WR, Escribano L, George TI, Kluin-Nelemans HC, Ustun C, Triggiani M, Brockow K, Gotlib J, Orfao A, Schwartz LB, Broesby-Olsen S, Bindslev-Jensen C, Kovanen PT, Galli SJ, Austen KF, Arber DA, Horny H-P, Arock M, Metcalfe DD. Advances in the classification and treatment of mastocytosis: current status and outlook toward the future. Cancer Res. 2017b;77(6):1261-70. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-2234. PMid:28254862.

Wagner N, Staubach P. Mastocytosis - pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and treatment. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2018;16(1):42-57. PMid:29314691.




How to Cite

Soares, C. S., Delgado, L., Morgado, S., Carvalho, P. P., & Barros, L. C. (2021). Rare and unknown canine systemic mastocytosis: clinical and laboratory features of an aberrant c-Kit mutation neoplasia. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 58, e175896. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2021.175896