Comparative study between S-(+)-ketamine–midazolam and fentanyl–droperidol in black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata)


  • Luiz Fernando Larangeira Lopes Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Cirurgia ; Marinha do Brasil, Batalhão de Defesa Nuclear, Biológica, Química e Radiológica de Aramar
  • Vanessa Nadine Gris Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento ; Kyoto University, Primate Research Institute, Center for Human Evolution Modeling Research
  • Mario Antonio Ferraro Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Cirurgia
  • Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Departamento de Cirurgia



Anesthesia, Antinociception, Opioid, Primate, Sedation


Sedative and antinociceptive effects of two anesthetic protocols in black-tufted marmosets were compared in this study. Twenty-six marmosets underwent chemical immobilization for physical examination, blood sampling, tattooing, and microchipping. Animals were randomly treated with S-(+)-ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) (KM) or fentanyl (12.5 µg/kg) and droperidol (625 µg/kg) (FD) given by intramuscular injection. Heart and respiratory rates were recorded. Sedation, antinociception, muscle relaxation, posture, auditory, and visual responses were evaluated using a scoring system. Sedation in KM was achieved faster (p < 0.001) and lasted for a shorter period of time (p = 0.0009). KM was similar to FD in its cardiorespiratory effects, auditory and visual responses. Both protocols promoted adequate sedation to allow manipulation. Animals in KM assumed lateral recumbency while animals in FD maintained a quadrupedal posture during evaluation. FD produced less intense sedation and muscle relaxation but a higher degree of antinociception compared to KM and is suitable for procedures that require analgesia in black-tufted marmosets.


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How to Cite

Lopes LFL, Gris VN, Ferraro MA, Cortopassi SRG. Comparative study between S-(+)-ketamine–midazolam and fentanyl–droperidol in black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata). Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. [Internet]. 2022 Mar. 24 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];59:e188652. Available from: