Occurrence of leukoencephalomalacia in equids in São Paulo state, Brazil: anatomopathological findings
Keywords:Leukoencephalomalacia, Equids, Diferencial diagnosis, Gross lesions, Histopathology
AbstractThis article describes clinical and pathological findings of leukoencephalomalacia in equids with neurological signs which tested negative to rabies, equine herpesvirus and equine encephalomyelitis. This work was carried during the period of two years in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 67 brain samples were examined and in 10.4% (five equines, one poney, and one donkey) were observed gross lesions of ELEM, confirmed by histopathological analysis. The animals were five males and two females ranged from 11 months to nine years old. The seven cases happened in all seasons of the year. The most characteristic clinical signs were incoordination, ataxia, paralysis of the hind legs, profound depression and death. Necropsy was performed to collect brain samples for virological and histopathological diagnosis. Gross lesions included congestion of meningeal blood vessels, malacia of the white matter characterized by yellowish depressed areas sometimes hemorrhagic, with cavitations, and softening surrounded by hyperemic area. Microscopically, the lesions were liquefactive necrosis of the white matter brain, characterized by eosinophilic and amorphous material, axonal and perivascular edema, hemorrhage and vacuolization of the neuropil and axonal sferoids. Gitter cells were seen in some areas of malacia. Perivascular mononuclear cuffing was observed in only one case. The present study confirms that differential diagnosis is very important to distinguish equid neuropathies. The occurence of ELEM in the present study shows that the disease is important for the equideoculture in São Paulo State.
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