Morphology and innervation of the diaphragm of deers (Manzana americana, Manzana simplicicornis and Blastoceros bezoarticus)
Keywords:Anatomy of deers, Diaphragm, Phrenic nerve
The morphology and innervation of the diaphragm in 3 species of deers (Manzana americana, Manzana simplicicornis and Blastoceros bezoarticus) were dissected after having been fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. The diaphragm in 3 species appeared thin, having a reduced peripheral muscular portion, a large centrum tendineum and thick pillars. The phrenic nerves presented a terminal trifurcation (45% on the right and 18.2% on the left) or a bifurcation into (a) a dorsal branch and a lateroventral trunk (54.5% on the left and 36.4% on the right) or (b) a ventral branch and a laterodorsal trunk (27.3% on the left and 18.2% on the right). Dorsal, lateral and ventral branches of the phrenic nerves supply the lumbar, costal and sternal portions of the diaphragm, respectively. Connections were found between small branches of the phrenic nerves.
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