Clinical and epidemiological characterization of leishmaniasis in dogs in São Paulo State
Keywords:Leishmania sp, Dog, Epidemiology, Diagnosis
The occurrence of visceral or cutaneous canine leishmaniasis cases among dermatophatic dogs admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry - University of São Paulo from 1997 to 2008 was retrospectively characterized. For the diagnosis of 427 animals, serological (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Indirect Immunofluorescence and/or Complement Fixation), parasitological and molecular (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests were performed, which resulted in 117 (27.4%) confirmed positive cases. Of these, 96 (82.1%) were pure breed dogs and the others 21 (17.9%) were cross breed, being 57 (48.7%) females and 60 (51.3%) males. In terms of age, 26 (22.2%) were younger than 36 months, 48 (41%) were between 36 and 84 months, and 43 (36.8%) were older than seven years old. Sixty-four (54.7%) dogs were considered oligosymptomatic, 44 (37.6%) symptomatic, and the remaining nine (7.7%) asymptomatic. The main clinical findings were, in descending order, dermal lesions, lymphadenopathy, anemia, dysorexia, prostration and splenomegaly. As for hematological disorders, relative and absolute lymphopenia was the most important findings. Ninety-six (82.1%) of the positive animals correspond to allochthonus cases from São Paulo municipality.
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