Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras <p>The Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science (BJVRAS), eISSN 1678-4456, is continous published, exclusively online, and in English. The BJVRAS is linked to the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo (SP, Brazil), being supported by the Veterinary Medicine Foundation (FUMVET). The BJVRAS is intended to publish scientific studies on veterinary medicine and related sciences. </p> en-US <p>The journal content is authorized under the Creative Commons&nbsp; BY-NC-SA&nbsp; license&nbsp;(summary of the license:&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1593695056045000&amp;usg=AFQjCNGUhYfUZpCP50YSH_XfFJXZYqlaeA">https://<wbr>creativecommons.org/licenses/<wbr>by-nc-sa/4.0</a>&nbsp;| full text of the license:&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/legalcode&amp;source=gmail&amp;ust=1593695056045000&amp;usg=AFQjCNHXLuHbkJDgXNQTaJLLoK4xfDtuPw">https://<wbr>creativecommons.org/licenses/<wbr>by-nc-sa/4.0/legalcode</a>)&nbsp;</p> bjvras@usp.br (Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science) bjvras@usp.br (BJVRAS) Mon, 30 Jan 2023 15:02:28 -0300 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Ultrasonographic aspects of the gallbladder mucocele in 30 dogs: retrospective study https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/194905 <p>Gallbladder mucocele is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder epithelium, increased mucus production, accumulation, and densification of the bile content, which can lead to biliary obstruction, necrosis, and rupture of the gallbladder wall. Its finding may be accidental or related to symptoms. A retrospective study (2016-2019) was carried out based on abdominal ultrasound examinations in dogs, correlating aspects of the gallbladder and biliary system in the mucocele with existing comorbidities. Thirty dogs diagnosed with biliary mucocele were evaluated, of which 46.66% had the disease at an early stage, and 53.33% showed a more advanced stage. Of these, 66.66% were related to endocrinopathies and hyperadrenocorticism. Signs of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and biliary peritonitis were observed in two animals. Due to their potential risk of complications, follow-up ultrasound assessments are indicated in cases that opt for clinical treatment, not excluding the need for surgical intervention.</p> Fernanda de Carlo Deusdado, Carla Aparecida Batista Lorigados, Marianna Pantano, Ayne Murata Hayashi, Fabio Calderon Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/194905 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Genetic relationships of the Yucatan black hairless pig with Iberian breeds using single nucleotide polymorfisms https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/195697 <p>To conduct ex-situ creole pig conservation programs, it is essential to determine which breeding animals will be used, preferentially those with a more significant Iberian genetic component to preserve their origin. This study used a Yucatan <br />black hairless pigs (YBHP) subpopulation to estimate its genetic diversity and population structure. One hundred four adult pigs were selected for the absence of hair, black skin (without spots), black hoof, and straight snout. The porcine-GGP-50K <br />chip was used for SNP genotyping in YBHP, and information on Iberian and Yucatán hairless pigs from the United States (USYU) was taken from databases. All analysis was performed using PLINK v1.9 and v2.1 software. Inbreeding and fixation <br />index values were lower in YBHP, with high observed heterozygosity and allogamy index values, which agree with those obtained in the populations of Canarias and Chato Murciano. According to the clusters generated by the “Genome-Wide <br />Identity by State” analysis, four groups were identified, one of which included pigs from Guadyerbas, USYU, and YBHP. Between populations, YBHP was closely related to the hairless pigs from Guadyerbas, USYU, and Canarias. Principal <br />component analysis showed the same result. According to the results obtained from the runs of homozygosity investigation, aimed to get pools consensus of regions of overlapping, 119 SNPs associated with genes and biological processes were <br />identified. The BMP7 and NSUN2 genes were associated with epithelial cell differentiation, morphogenesis, and epithelial development. For nutrient metabolism: energy, the HADHA, PPARA, ADD1/SREBF1, and FAT1genes were identified.</p> Clemente Lemus-Flores, Job Oswaldo Bugarín Prado, Roberto Valdivia Bernal; José Candelario Segura Correa; Raúl Sansor-Nah Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/195697 Mon, 30 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Use of organic acids to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium excretion in swine https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/198402 <p>The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonella isolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium. </p> Daniela Gomes da Silva, Eduarda Alexandra Gonçalves de Oliveira Moura, Thainara Vitoria Carnevalli Sanches, Caio Henrique Turco, Beatriz Belloni Zambotti, Fernando Antônio Moreira Petri, Gabriel Yuri Storino, Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Isabela Peixoto Rabelo, Marina Lopes Mechler-Dreibi, Karina Sonalio, Renato Ravetti, Luis Guilherme de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/198402 Fri, 03 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Sexual motivation and performance in sexual naïve and experienced rats treated with ivermectin: an ultrasonic vocalization study https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/198441 <p>In mammals, ivermectin acts as a GABAA receptor agonist and stimulates GABA release. Previous studies showed that ivermectin (IVM) reduces sexual performance, impairing the latency to the first mount and intromission. These parameters are usually considered motivational parameters of sexual behavior. However, IVM increases GABAergic activity leading to motor incoordination. Thus, it is reasonable to propose that IVM affects sexual performance via motor incoordination pathways. The present study analyzed ultrasonic vocalization in rats to verify whether IVM impairs sexual behavior via motivational mechanisms or motor impairment. Because sexual experience attenuates the impairment of motor performance, rats with sexual experience were also studied. Sexually naive and experienced rats were administered a therapeutic IVM dose and saline. The rats were exposed to receptive females, and the latency to the first mount was evaluated, followed by the 50-kHz USV test. IVM treatment in naïve rats increased the latency to first to mount relative to Saline naïve rats, while no differences were observed between saline and experienced rats. In naïve-IVM rats, a reduced frequency and total calls and increased mean time of calls occur relative to SAL-naïve rats. Experienced IVM rats did not show differences in the frequency, mean, and maximal calls close to Saline experienced rats. However, an increase in the total calls and the dominant frequency of calls were observed in IVM-experienced rats compared to Saline experienced rats. A negative and positive correlation occurred between the latency to the first mount and USVs in groups with and without ivermectin exposure. Hence, we propose that ivermectin increased the sexual motivation of rats exposed to a female in estrous based in USVs despite an increased latency to the first mount that occurred. The increased latency to the first mount resulted from motor incoordination, as previously observed and proposed by our group.</p> Paula da Silva Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Silva Sampaio, Éricka Patrícia da Silva, Ivana Barbosa Suffredini, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Maria Martha Bernardi, Thiago Berti Kirsten Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/198441 Mon, 20 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Pharmacopuncture with a low dosage of B complex vitamins in the Da Zhui acupoint (Governing Vessel 14) for controlling gastrointestinal parasitism in periparturient ewes https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199050 <p>Gastrointestinal parasites are a significant challenge in sheep farming, and periparturient ewes are one of the most susceptible categories in sheep flocks. This study aimed to verify whether the injection of B vitamins at the acupuncture point governing vessel 14 (GV14) can influence the parasitic load or host parasite interaction in naturally infected ewes during the peripartum period. Four weeks before parturition, 25 ewes were divided into five treatment groups: (1) Dose Control: 0.2 mL of B complex via IM; (2) Drug Control: 2 mL Complex B via IM; (3) Acupoint Control: 0.2 mL of Water at GV14 point; (4) Control; (5) Test group: 0.2 mL of B complex at the GV14 point. Treatments were performed at weeks -3, -1, 2, 4, and 6 about the parturition time. Fecal samples to estimate the parasitic load by fecal egg counts (FEC) and total blood samples for hemogram examination were performed seven days after the treatment, coinciding with weeks -2, 3, 5, and 7 about the parturition time. The number of peripheral eosinophils was higher in group 3 than in group 1 (p &lt;0.05). Although groups 3 and 5 had lower mean values of FEC and higher hematological values at the time of weaning, these differences were not statistically significant (p&gt; 0.05) according to the F test. However, all animals in groups 3 and 5 maintained low parasitism levels until the end of the experiment. Further studies should be performed with larger sample sizes and minor changes to the experimental protocol to elucidate the role of GV14 acupoint stimulation in the host-parasite relationship.</p> Fernanda Rosalinski-Moraes, Paula Mara Troncha, Wilson Junior Oliveira, Marco Túlio Santos Siqueira, Vinícius Vieira de Paiva, Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199050 Mon, 30 Jan 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Evaluation of kidney injury through early markers in canine pyometra https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199954 <p>Fourteen female dogs diagnosed with pyometra were studied at three separate times: at diagnosis (T0) and 24 h (T1) and 10-15 days (T2) after ovariohysterectomy (OH). The means of the markers, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) (17.71 to 26.54 μg/dL) and the urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase to creatinine ratio (uGGT/uCr) (1.06 to 2.62 U/mg), varied, showing an increase with time. Further, the elevation of gamma-glutamyl transferase (uGGT) (56.61 to 128.12 U/L) and the urinary protein to creatinine ratio (RPC) (0.26 to 1.24) was evident at T0 and T1. A reduction in the means of RPC, uGGT, and uGGT/uCr was observed 10-15 days after OH. Despite the elevation of these markers, the concentration of creatinine (1.11 to 1.40 mg/dL), urea (40.07 to 67.16 mg/dL), and urinary specific gravity (1.027 to 1.028) only presented slight variation. In canine pyometra, complications secondary to acute renal injury may be present that may be mild and transient in most treated animals. As elevation in SDMA and RPC preceded changes in creatinine levels for the evaluation of glomerular filtration, tubular markers could assist in the early identification of renal damage in canine pyometra. </p> Andrezza Cavalcanti de Andrade, Érica Pereira da Silva, Joana D'Arc dos Santos, Karina Pessoa Oliveira, Karla Patrícia Chaves da Silva, Márcia Kikuyo Notomi Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199954 Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Dogs naturally infected by Rangelia vitalii, Babesia canis vogeli, and Ehrlichia canis in São Paulo, Brazil https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/200761 <p>Several agents can cause hemoparasitic diseases in dogs, and blood-sucking arthropods transmit these diseases. These agents can cause several clinical manifestations and, in some cases, can kill the host. Because these agents are essential in animal health, this study aims to detect the frequency of Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia rickettsii, Anaplasma platys, and Rangelia vitalii by real-time PCR and Babesia vogeli in dogs in the southern region of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo. Of the 98 dog samples, 18 (18.4%) tested positive with real-time polymerase chain reaction for at least one studied agent. Of these 18 samples, 17 tested positive for a single agent (11.2% for B. canis vogeli, 1.02% for R. vitalii, and 5.1% for E. canis), and one showed co-infection with B. canis vogeli and R. vitalii. The results demonstrate the presence of hemoparasites in the studied animals, which can influence the quality and life expectancy of these animals. The Rangelia detection warns small animal clinicians to include it as a differential diagnosis for hemoparasitosis. </p> Thais Fernandes Batista, Adriana Cortez, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Daniel Pedro Barbosa Nascimento, Ricardo Duarte Lopes, Jonas Moraes Filho Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/200761 Thu, 03 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Probiotics supplementation reduces cigarette smoke-induced damage in the respiratory micro-architecture of mice https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/201873 <p>This study evaluated the protective efficacy of probiotics supplementation against cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, inflammation, and loss of cilia in mice. Probiotics are known to promote mucosal tolerance and mitigate respiratory injuries. Twenty-four adult mice were randomly divided into three groups: control (Ctr), cigarette smoke (CS), and cigarette smoke + probiotics (CS+P). Probiotics were given for 7 days before exposure to smoke in the CS+P group. Tissue samples of the trachea (goblet cell count and index, loss of cilia), lungs (airspace distention), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected and processed. The results showed a significant increase in acidic and neutral goblet cells in the CS group compared to the Ctr and CS+P groups (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). Overall, goblet cell number and index were lower in the CS+P group (41.71 ± 5.76, 0.67 ± 0.073) than CS group (56.28 ± 5.34, 1.31 ± 0.28). Inflammatory cells and loss of cilia significantly decreased in mice fed probiotics before exposure to cigarette smoke (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). Lung emphysema was also significantly reduced in the CS+P group compared to the CS group (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of probiotics reduced lung emphysema, inflammatory cells, goblet cell index, and loss of cilia under conditions of cigarette smoke exposure in mice.</p> Komal Khan, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Saima Ashraf, Mirza Muhammad Usman, Hafiz Faseehur-Rehman, Habibur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/201873 Mon, 20 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 The in vitro effects of n-3 fatty acids on immune response regulation of bovine ex vivo endometrial explants https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/202442 <p>Fatty acids are considered metabolic intermediaries, although new facts indicate they also work as signaling molecules with different roles in the immune response. Based on that, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (LNA) in ex vivo bovine endometrial explants. For this, two groups were formed: (1) LPS-challenged and (2) control, both to evaluate the accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines as interleukin 1β (IL1B) and interleukin 6 (IL6). To develop the study, bovine female reproductive tracts from non-pregnant Angus heifers without evidence of reproductive diseases were selected. Endometrial explants were processed and treated for 24 h with EPA, DHA, and LNA in five different concentrations (0μM, 50μM, 100 μM, 200μM and 400 μM) and then, challenged with LPS for 24 h. Supernatants were collected to evaluate the concentration of IL1B and IL6 by ELISA. Explants treated with EPA from control groups reduced the concentrations of ILB (200µM) and IL6 (400 µM), and IL6 (50 µM; 100 µM) from the LPS-challenged group. DHA decreased the accumulation of IL1B and IL6 at 200 µM on explants from the LPS-challenged group, and 200 µM reduced IL6 from the control group. In contrast, explants treated with LNA only reduced the accumulation of IL1B to 400μM (from both groups). In conclusion, the EPA acid is the best anti inflammatory option to decrease the concentration of both pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6) from LPS-challenged and control groups in bovine endometrial explants; while LNA evidence to be the last option to promote an anti-inflammatory response. </p> Luisa Cunha Carneiro, João Paulo Elsen Saut, Mariana de Oliveira Almeida, Sara Pedrosa Franco Barbosa, Erin Jane Williams, Hévila Dutra Barbosa de Cerqueira, Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/202442 Tue, 06 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Characterization of dairy farms in a family-farm system in the municipality of Senador Guiomard, Acre State, Western Amazon https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/202942 <p>National dairy production is characterized by significant heterogeneity in production techniques and herd and farmer profiles. Our objective was to characterize 18 dairy farms under family farming in Senador Guiomard, Acre State, from January to December 2019. Data were gathered through 255 question semi-structured forms applied to farmers in monthly visits. The data were then stored in Excel® spreadsheets and subjected to descriptive statistics. A joint analysis showed the following characteristics: farmers with low schooling level (89%); farmers of advanced age (61%); nonadoption of good dairy practices (100%); inadequate milk transport (72%); adequate brucellosis vaccination (100%); non specialized herds (40%); pasture production system (100%); low productivity per area (873 L/ha/year) and per cow (4.0 liters/cow/day); low number of lactating cows (53%); and gross milk income (29,466.65 R$/year) representing 69% of the total gross income. The region studied has positive factors such as market guarantees, proximity to large market centers, reasonable land prices, suitable climate, ease of credit, rural education, and technical assistance. Overall, the farms are managed under a traditional production system, with low use of technology and unsatisfactory zootechnical indexes. However, the region has favorable conditions for dairy farming development. </p> Luane Pereira Linhares, Eduardo Mitke Brandão Reis, Marcos Aurélio Lopes, Camilla Birenbaum Nobile, Antonia Valcemira Domingos de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/202942 Wed, 06 Sep 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Olfactory stimulus as environmental enrichment for shelter dogs: a pilot study https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203068 <p>Environmental enrichment techniques include olfactory stimuli for improving animal welfare. This study aimed to analyze the reactions of 41 shelter dogs exposed to odorous stimuli, such as the method used in another study on wild canids. The focal animal method analyzed the dogs’ reactions, with all behaviors recorded. Behavioral responses were classified as positive (P+), negative (N-), or other (Ot). Independent variables were all dogs and the size of the packs. The behavior between the basal (without stimulus), exposure, and after-stimulus withdrawal was analyzed. For all dogs, olfactory stimuli significantly increased P+ (P=0.001) and N- (P=0.004), contrasting with the decrement of Ot behaviors (P=0.001) from the basal to the exposure phase. After the withdrawal of the stimuli, P+, N-, and Ot behaviors returned to basal levels (P&gt;0.05). There were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in the conduct of small or large packs exposed to stimuli. Dogs are sensitive to olfactory stimuli, but arousal is generalized to P+ and N-. It is undesirable to an N- increase for improvement of animal welfare. Contrary to what was observed in a study with wild canids, the method failed in shelter dogs because N- was increased. The introduction of sudden novelty (olfactory stimulus) in an impoverished shelter environment may have caused excitement in the dogs. It is suggested that changes in the method, such as stimuli exposition to each dog in an isolated room, are necessary to increase sheltered dog well-being.</p> Milene Paula Figueira, Fernanda Fatima Rodrigues Silva, Alice Ribeiro, Ita Oliveira Silva, Vanner Boere Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203068 Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 -0300 The role of pacas of captivity as a potential reservoir of zoonotic fungi in Acre, Western Amazon, Brazil https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203984 <p>Wild animals can be natural reservoirs of different microorganisms, essential for monitoring these pathogens for the generation of knowledge and creation of tools aimed at programs for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, including zoonoses. The objective was to report the fungal diversity in the skin of pacas in captivity in Acre, Western Amazon, Brazil. Twenty-six animals were evaluated, from which skin samples were collected by superficial scraping, hair avulsion, and sterile plastic brush. The samples were seeded on Mycosel agar, and the phenotypic characteristics of the colonies were analyzed. In 80.8% of the samples, different fungi were isolated, from the genera <em>Candida</em>, <em>Microsporum, </em>and <em>Trichophyton</em>, among others. This is the first description of the identification of fungi in the skin of pacas and suggests that these animals can be considered essential reservoirs of saprophytic or pathogenic microorganisms with zoonotic potential in the Western Amazon.</p> Tallison Filipe Lima de Oliveira, Tamyres Izarelly Barbosa da Silva, Vania Maria França Ribeiro, Girclyhanne da Costa Costa, Jhonatan Henrique Lima da Rocha; Marcos Bruno Zacarias Campelo; Breno Kalyl Freitas Nascimento, Sandra Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203984 Mon, 21 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses against Brucella abortus https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/204539 <p>This study aimed to evaluate methods for studying the <em>in vitro </em>antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against <em>Brucella abortus </em>and to evaluate the antagonistic effect of LAB on the viability of this pathogen. A total of 18 LAB strains (<em>Lactobacillus plantarum, </em>n = 11; <em>Pediococcus acidilactici, </em>n = 1; <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus, </em>n = 4; and <em>Lactobacillus brevis, </em>n = 2), isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in three regions (Canastra, Campos das Vertentes, and Araxá) of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against <em>B. abortus </em>using three methods: spot-on-lawn, agar well diffusion assay, and antagonistic activity of the culture supernatants. None of the tested LAB strains could inhibit <em>B. abortus </em>in the spot-on-lawn and agar-well diffusion assays. The supernatants produced by LAB had an acidic pH, with intensity depending on bacterial growth and strain, and could inhibit the growth of <em>B. abortus</em>. In contrast, pH-neutralized (pH 7.0) LAB supernatants did not suppress the growth of <em>B. abortus. </em>The results showed that the best technique to study the <em>in vitro </em>antagonism of LAB against <em>B. abortus </em>was the antagonistic activity of culture supernatants. The growth of <em>B. abortus </em>may have been inhibited by acid production.</p> Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi, Guilherme Campos Tavares, Ethiene Luiza de Souza Santos, Lucas Oliveira Ferreira, Damiana Alves de Almeida Rangel, Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles, Maysa Serpa Gonçalves, Antônio Augusto Fonseca Junior, Paulo Martins Soares Filho, Patrícia Gomes de Souza, Marcelo Resende de Souza, Andrey Pereira Lage Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/204539 Mon, 21 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Relationship between FAMACHA© scores and zootechnical indicators of a sheep production system https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/204811 <p>In Brazil, lamb producers face challenges raising their animals because of high anthelmintic resistance and loss of productivity due to parasites. It is well known that parasitic infections can reduce the performance of sheep. However, until the publication of this work, no research was found that quantified the effects that anemia reflected by FAMACHA© scores can exert on other zootechnical indicators in a lamb production system. The objective of this study was to use the FAMACHA© scores to quantify the impacts of anemia in ewes at breeding and lambing on the productive and reproductive performance of a meat sheep flock. The variables evaluated were i) FAMACHA© score of ewes at breeding and lambing, ii) body condition score of ewes at breeding and at lambing, iii) average daily gain of lambs until weaning, iv) ewe’s age, v) birth weights per individual lamb and litter, vi) weaning weight, vii) ewe’s weight, viii) litter size and ix) pre-weaning survival. The treatments evaluated corresponded to the FAMACHA© score of the ewes during breeding and lambing. Quantitative responses were submitted to analyses of variance and compared by Duncan’s test. In contrast, qualitative or discrete responses were evaluated by the Kruskal &amp; Wallis test and compared to Dunn’s test. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the FAMACHA© scores of ewes at breeding and lambing. All statistical analyzes were performed using the R-Studio software version 4.2.0 at a 5% significance level. The FAMACHA© score of breeding ewes was related to the body condition score at breeding, ewe weight, pre-weaning survival, ewe age, litter size, and birth weight. Furthermore, the FAMACHA© score of ewes at lambing was related to the body condition score at lambing, ewe weight, pre-weaning survival, birth weight per lamb and litter, pre-weaning average daily gain, weaning weight, and age of the ewe. There was no significant difference between the test times of the FAMACHA© scores of the ewes, indicating that an ewe will present a similar score at both stages. It was concluded that ewes with FAMACHA© scores of 4 and 5 and their offspring showed the worst productive and reproductive performances. Conversely, the ewes with FAMACHA© 1 obtained the opposite result, demonstrating better technical performance.</p> Gustavo Roberto Dias Rodrigues, Marco Túlio Santos Siqueira, Naiara Cristina dos Santos Silveira, Natascha Almeida Marques da Silva, Gilberto de Lima Macedo Júnior, Fernanda Rosalinski Moraes, Camila Raineri Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/204811 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Physiological gait test https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/205091 <p>The evaluation of animal locomotor activity is a behavioral tool widely used to measure the mechanisms underlying a particular disease, disorder, or injury, as well as the effects of exposure to a xenobiotic. The elevated beam test is one of the most used tests in rodents to assess balance and motor coordination. Despite being inexpensive and utilizing a simple apparatus, the high beam test requires a long period of animal training and habituation. The development and characterization of an alternative test, namely the gait test, has the potential to circumvent the time and effort required for animal training, deeming it an effective, inexpensive, and fast method for the analysis of behaviors that are comparably assessed by the high beam test. Therefore, the present study focused on determining the effectiveness and feasibility of the gait test for assessing rodent locomotion and balance as a replacement for the elevated beam test. For this purpose, male rats were divided into three groups: one control group exposed to a saline solution (NaCl 0.9%) and two experimental groups exposed to a single dose of either 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg of ivermectin intraperitoneally for induction of locomotor disturbance. The high beam and gait tests were performed 15 min and 24 h after drug administration. Results show that the experimental groups had difficulty performing the tasks of either test at both time points analyzed compared to the control groups. At the high beam, experimental animals had trouble maintaining balance and walking. At the gait test, experimental animals showed alterations in gait, which were quantitated by: (a) shortening of step length, (b) decrease of stride, (c) altered step symmetry, and (d) altered stride area. Such results are indicative of compensatory efforts and were comparable between both tests. Altogether, the data indicate that the gait test meets all requirements for assessing motor coordination in rodents. The gait test is therefore validated as a complement to the elevated beam test for the study and analysis of neurodegenerative impairment and other disorders involving neuromuscular disturbances. </p> Lorena Pantaleon, André Fukushima, Natália Moreira, Leonardo Ribeiro De-Paula, Guilherme Ribeiro, Juliana Weckx Peña-Muñoz, Beatriz do Prado Pacca Faria, Marcelo Mendonça, Gabriel Ramos de Abreu, Júlia Zacarelli-Magalhães, Jan Carlo Bertassoni Delorenzi, Paula A. Faria Waziry, Helenice de Souza Spinosa, Esther Lopes Ricci Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/205091 Tue, 06 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Survey of euthanasia methods used in neotropical chiropterans in São Paulo State, Brazil https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/205263 <p>Zoonotic Surveillance Divisions (ZSDs) rescue and euthanize bats in contact with humans. The euthanasia procedure should be conducted safely for the animal and caretaker and minimal stress for the animal is important. The objectives of this study were: i. evaluate the methods of euthanasia used by ZSDs in the State of São Paulo; ii. compare the methods with national and international guidelines for animal euthanasia practices; iii. assess the methodologies considering taxonomy and eating habits of the main bat species, and iv. propose standardization of euthanasia procedures. Sixty-five ZSDs locations received an online questionnaire or were contacted by telephone and 33 ZSDs (50.8%) responded and are distributed in 11 mesoregions in the state to remain anonymous. The euthanasia methods were divided into chemical (injectable or inhalation), physical, or mixed methods. Bat specimens (n = 550) were identified and classified to evaluate the main genera found in the state. The location of the ZSD, species, eating habits, and the method of euthanasia used were analyzed. The specimens by bat families were Molossidae (n = 340), Phyllostomidae (n = 171), and Vespertilionidae (n = 39). Chemical methods were used in 25 ZSDs (75.75%), physical in 5 (15.15%), and mixed in 3 (9.09%). There is no uniformity or standardization in bat euthanasia methods used by ZSDs, although most are based on acceptable chemical methods. It was proposed an algorithm to assist the veterinarian in choosing the method of euthanasia for bats that will allow standardizing euthanasia procedures for this species, considering physiological differences, and respecting technical, bioethical, and animal welfare guidelines.</p> Liura Sanchez Lauri, Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Karin Corrêa Scheffer, Enio Mori, Lilian Rose Marques de Sá Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/205263 Tue, 31 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Association of S(+) ketamine, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for chemical restraint in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/207618 <p>The present study aimed at assessing the effects of combining 20 mg/kg S(+) ketamine with 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol on the physiological parameters and anesthetic recovery time and score of eight captive scarlet macaw (<em>Ara macao</em>) specimens. These specimens were captured at the Marabá Zoobotanic Foundation (Fundação Zoobotânica de Marabá), Pará, using butterfly and mist nets, and subsequently subjected to the proposed protocol. The following physiological parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2), body temperature (BT), and non-invasive blood pressure 5 min after drug administration (M0) and every 10 min thereafter (M1‒M5), with a total of 55 min of analysis of anesthetic effects. Glycemia was measured 5 min after drug administration and every 30 min thereafter. Anesthetic induction and recovery times were also determined. Among the parameters evaluated in this study, both HR and BT significantly decreased throughout the anesthetic period, with the lowest levels at 55 min after drug administration (M5). In contrast, RR did not significantly differ, and all animals remained stable, maintaining an RR close to a mean of 20 ± 8 cpm. Throughout the anesthetic period, SpO2 was 92 ± 5%, with no significant difference. The birds remained under spontaneous ventilation and without oxygen supplementation. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures remained stable, with no significant differences in any of these measurements. At M0 and M3, the glycemia decreased slightly, albeit with no significant difference justifying an adverse effect or even hypoglycemia. The anesthetic induction time, from M0 to decubitus, was 2.4 ± 0.7 min. The anesthetic recovery time, from M0 to effortless bipedal position and adequate phalangeal flexion, was 99.3 ± 32.4 min. The sedation was assessed as intense, and the anesthetic recovery was rated excellent in 62.5% and good in 37.5% of the animals.</p> Suzana Maria da Silva Caldas, Ana Paula Gering, Mara Régia Teixeira Santos, Cinthian Cássia Mendonça, Adriana Genelhú Carreira, Daniela Jorge Coutinho Armani, Marina Sette Camara Benarrós, Rafael Romeu Ferreira Diniz Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/207618 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Radiographic findings in the coxofemoral joint of Australian Cattle Dogs https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208324 <p>Australian Cattle Dogs (ACD) are medium-sized animals widely used in fieldwork for managing cattle and sheep. There needs to be more information about the conditions these dogs can develop despite being well-characterized animals since the beginning of the 20th century. Hip dysplasia (HD) is a developmental abnormality between the femoral head and the acetabular fossa, which can be debilitating. However, the available literature has no studies on the prevalence of this condition in dogs of this breed. This study aimed to evaluate radiographs of ACD qualitatively and quantitatively. For this purpose, 49 dogs considered healthy without clinical signs of HD were radiographically assessed, and the animals were classified as dysplastic (D) and non-dysplastic (ND). A frequency of 46.9% of dysplastic dogs was observed, with males being more affected. The cortical index (CI) and angle of inclination (AI) could not differentiate D from ND animals; only the Norberg angle (NA) was effective in this differentiation. No correlation was observed between AI, CI, and AN.</p> Thais Cozza dos Santos, Eduarda Aléxia Nunes Louzada Dias Cavalcanti, Maria Eduarda Bicca Dode, Gustavo Antônio Boff, Guilherme Albuquerque de Oliveira Cavalcanti, Fábio Raphael Pascoti Bruhn Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208324 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Comparative digital study of two cranial rotation methods of the proximal fragment on the center of rotation of angulation-based leveling osteotomy planning with different tibial distal anatomical axes https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/209837 <p>The center of rotation of angulation (CORA)-based leveling osteotomy (CBLO) technique was developed for cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture treatment, aiming to modify the mechanical-anatomical angle (AMA), which is described as a predictive risk factor for the disease and is recommended to be taken into consideration when one is choosing a surgical procedure for tibial plateau slope alteration. Identifying a tibial distal anatomical axis (DAA) is essential in CBLO surgical planning and measuring AMA amplitude. The aim of this study was: to evaluate two methods of cranial rotation of the proximal fragment using four different tibial distal anatomical axes for digital planning on the CBLO technique, comparing its effectiveness in achieving the desired tibial plateau angle (TPAd) and closing the AMA angle. Tibial measurements were made with the vPOP pro software using 30 mediolateral radiographs of canine stifles. The DAA described by four authors was used based on the amount of Rotation completed (Rc) for each. The rotation methods evaluated were: 1) commercial CBLO table (RT) and 2) overlapping the tip of the intercondylar eminence with the corresponding DAA line (RE). The TPAd to be obtained was fixed at 10°, and the final AMA to be achieved at 0°. The mean values and standard deviations of the final TPA and final AMA with the rotation method were TPA(RT)f(%TPAd), TPA(RE)f(%TPAd), AMA(RT)f(%AMAzero), AMA(RE)f(%AMAzero). The results of each author were Hulse 10.0 ± 0.3(46.6%), 9.9 ± 0.1(60%), 0.3 ± 0.3(33.3%), 0.3 ± 0.3(13.3%), Osmond 10.1 ± 0.2(75%), 10,1 ± 0.2(83.3%), 0.4 ± 0.4(33.3%), 0.4 ± 0.3(8,3%), Miles 10.0 ± 0.1(66.6%), 10.0 ± 0.1(75%), 0.2 ± 0.1(16.6%), 0.2 ± 0.1(8.3%), Tudury 9.6 ± 0.6(31.2%), 9.5 ± 0.2(31.2%), 1.0 ± 0.7(18.7%), 1.0 ± 0.6(12.5%), respectively. The initially described RT obtained a higher percentage of AMA at zero degrees. Therefore, the RE method is discarded for use as an alternative to CBLO planning.</p> Barbara Georgina Cosgalla Navarro, Eduardo Alberto Tudury, Gabriel Ignacio Ramirez Flores Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/209837 Tue, 07 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Humoral immunity is not altered in overweight pregnant Crioulo mares https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/210215 <p>Both pregnancy and obesity can influence significant changes in the immune system. On this basis, the present study proposes to evaluate the humoral immune response of overweight pregnant mares in response to a commercial vaccine. Thirty pregnant Crioulo mares were separated according to body condition score (BCS) into overweight (BCS≥7/9) or lean-control (BCS= 5-6/9). In each group, the animals were subdivided into vaccinated and controls. The mares were vaccinated against EHV-1 in two doses spaced 21 days apart and had their blood collected monthly, for five months, for antibody evaluation. Both vaccinated groups had an increase in specific neutralizing antibodies after the vaccine. However, after the second dose, there was no increase in antibodies in any of the groups. Vaccinated overweight and lean-control mares did not differ at any time point. Therefore, this study demonstrated that obesity does not influence the humoral immune response in pregnant Crioulo mares.</p> Mariana Andrade Mousquer, Bruna dos Santos Suñe Moraes, Alice Corrêa Santos, Rafaela Pinto de Souza, Marcelo de Lima, Paulo Ricardo Centeno Rodrigues, Bruna da Rosa Curcio, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/210215 Tue, 07 Nov 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Electrocardiographic changes and changes in cardiac lactate and troponin I levels associated with search and rescue physical activity in military dogs https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/210468 <p>Rescue and recovery dogs intercalate the activity intensity developed, which also triggers significant metabolic changes in cardiac physiology. Thus, we evaluated the changes that search simulation causes in glucose, lactate, and cardiac troponin I level (cTnI) and the electrocardiographic and heart rate during the activity and recovery phase to predict the physiological adaptation to the exercise. Five healthy adult dogs from the Rescue and Recovery Service of Military Firefighters Corps were submitted to 60 minutes search operation simulation in the woods. They covered a forest area of approximately 50,000 m2. The dogs were loose and accompanied by their driver, and they could perform any physical activity. Were evaluated serum biochemical analysis of glucose, lactate, cardiac troponin I, electrocardiographic, and heart rate (rest, exercise phase, and recovery time). No changes in glucose levels, heart rate, and cardiac rhythm were detected. In comparison to baseline values, there is an increase: in lactate at the end of the exercise phase [EXER] (60’EXER), and in the recovery phase [RCT] at 30’RCT and 60’RCT, and cTnI at 60’RCT, 120’RCT, and 4hRCT. P wave duration was significantly higher at 60’EXER, 15’RCT, and 30’RCT, with no alterations in wave amplitude. QRS interval duration significantly increased at 30’RCT, and the ST segment presented a significant difference at 60’EXER, 15’RCT, and 60’RCT compared to the rest moment. The moderate alterations in lactate and cTnI and few alterations in the electrocardiographic and heart rate maintenance suggest the adaptation of rescue and recovery dogs to the type, intensity, and duration of search operation simulation performed.</p> Caroline Sant’Anna Feitosa, Hévila Dutra Barbosa de Cerqueira, Franciely Mota de Oliveira, Isabella Cosmo da Silva, Karina Preising Aptekmann, Leonardo Oliveira Trivilin Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/210468 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Fecal microbiota profile of ovariohysterectomized cats submitted to estrogen replacement https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199365 <p>This study aimed to observe the effects of 17 β estradiol replacements on the fecal microbiota in spayed cats. Individual samples of fresh feces were collected and stored at -80° C. Sequencing of the V3/V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used, and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio was lower in the group receiving estrogen replacement compared to the SHAM group (P = 0,005). Jaccard index (P = 0.123) and Yue &amp; Clayton index (P = 0.094) did not reveal alpha and beta diversity differences. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LefSe) identified Firmicutes and MegasPhaera as the biomarkers for the SHAM group, and Burkholderiales, Betaproteobacteria, Sutterellaceae, Suterella, Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria unclassified and Collinsella for the group receiving estrogen replacement. </p> Jamile Haddad Neta, Luiz Guilherme Corsi Trautwein, Ana Beatriz Marques Almeida, Myrian Megumy Tsunokawa Hidalgo, Maria Isabel Mello Martins Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/199365 Fri, 03 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Ornithodoros mimon colonizing a residence in Campinas, state of São Paulo, associated with human parasitism https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/200741 <p><em>Ornithodoros mimon </em>is an argasid tick species usually associated with bats and marsupials and occasionally parasitizes humans inside their homes. This paper reports a tick infestation in a residence in the municipality of Campinas, located in the interior of the state of São Paulo (SP). This report increases <em>O. mimon </em>occurrence in SP and corroborates its anthropophilic activity. Further studies are needed to clarify its role as a vector of pathogens. We highlighted the presence of <em>O. mimon </em>in an area with a large human population (Campinas) associated with synanthropic animals.</p> Glauber Meneses Barboza de Oliveira, Herbert Sousa Soares, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Thiago Fernandes Martins Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/200741 Mon, 20 Mar 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Morganella sp. infection in scent gland of corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) - case report https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208618 <p>The corn snake (<em>Pantherophis guttatus</em>) is a non-venomous snake from the Colubridae family. The pair of scent glands is indispensable in the physiology of reproduction and defense of the species. This structure is located caudal to the cloaca. It is responsible for releasing a thick material based on lipids containing pheromones that perform functions associated with animal behavior and survival. This work aims to report infection by <em>Morganella </em>sp. in a scent gland in a female corn snake, evidencing the diagnosis and treatment. An increase in volume was seen in the final third, proximal to the cloaca, firm consistency, immobile, and approximately 4 cm long and painful to touch. Samples of the material were collected for bacterial culture and antibiogram examination, being positive for bacteria of the genus Morganella. Based on the result of the antibiogram, it was possible to determine the most appropriate therapeutic protocol, with the referral to perform the surgical procedure to remove the tissue compromised by the infection, remaining stable until the removal of the stitches 40 days after the procedure, with total surgical wound healing.</p> Fabiano Rocha Prazeres Júnior, Amanda de Carvalho Moreira, José Alvim de Melo Neto, Maria Clara Nascimento Pedri, Vitor Fernando Mendes Malta Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208618 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 In sickness and in health: the intestinal microbiome of dogs https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203612 <p>Studies on the interactions between the intestinal microbiome and its host have strengthened in the last decade. However, publications on this topic in dogs still need to be made available, reinforcing the need for new studies and literary data for consultation. Given this, this review aims to describe the intestinal microbiome and its interactions with the canine host, which can contribute to both health and morbid conditions in these animals. The definition of microbiome encompasses the collective genome of all microorganisms that live in a defined habitat (intestine). It is known that the dog’s intestinal microbiota is varied, composed of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Under normal conditions, there is commensalism between some of these microorganisms and the host, which promotes critical physiological relationships and interactions that contribute to homeostasis and the consequent health of the animal. With this in mind, it is expected that the disturbances associated with the microbiome will result in imbalances in this commensal relationship and thus precipitate the development of diseases and aggravation of other diseases, thus characterizing intestinal dysbiosis.</p> Giovanna Rossi Varallo, Gabriela Marchiori Bueno, Cinara de Cassia Brandão, Leonardo Sanches, Isabela Belei Delmaschio de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/203612 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Effect of bovine subclinical mastitis on milk production and economic performance of Brazilian dairy farms https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208514 <p>This review summarized the significant results from Brazilian studies published in peer-reviewed scientific papers about the effect of bovine subclinical mastitis (SM) on economic performance and milk production. Different approaches were considered for (i) disease detection (indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) and directly using microbiological culture) and (ii) milk sampling strategy (mammary quarters, composite cow samples, and bulk milk tank). Globally, bovine mastitis is the most common disease of dairy herds, and the subclinical presentation is the most frequent. Dairy farmers usually underestimate the economic losses associated with SM because no visual changes in milk and quarters, udder, and systemic symptoms are observed. SM reduces milk yield and quality, reducing dairy herds’ profitability. The estimation of losses depends on the causative pathogen, the lactation stage, and the parity of affected cows. Thus, estimating the economic caused by SM in milk production and economic performance in dairy herds can be used to decide which mastitis control strategies to adopt. Mastitis control involves adopting specific measures associated with the characteristics of each herd, the period of the highest frequency of cases, the transmission form, and the profile of the pathogens involved in cases of intramammary infection. Thus, using individual SCC, the microbiological identification of pathogens causing SM, adopting efficient drying-off protocols, and other management practices are essential for mastitis control, improved milk quality, and greater profitability of dairy herds.</p> Juliano Leonel Goncalves , Gustavo Freu, Breno Luís Nery Garcia, Melina Melo Barcelos, Bruna Gomes Alves, Renata de Freitas Leite, Camylla Pedrosa Monteiro, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues Martins, Tiago Tomazi, Henk Hogeveen, Marcos Veiga dos Santos Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/208514 Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:00:00 -0300 Erratum: The in vitro effects of n-3 fatty acids on immune response regulation of bovine ex vivo endometrial explants https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/214210 <p>Fatty acids are considered metabolic intermediaries, although new facts indicate they also work as signaling molecules with different roles in the immune response. Based on that, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (LNA) in ex vivo bovine endometrial explants. For this, two groups were formed: (1) LPS-challenged and (2) control, both to evaluate the accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines as interleukin 1β (IL1B) and interleukin 6 (IL6). To develop the study, bovine female reproductive tracts from non-pregnant Angus heifers without evidence of reproductive diseases were selected. Endometrial explants were processed and treated for 24 h with EPA, DHA, and LNA in five different concentrations (0μM, 50μM, 100 μM, 200μM and 400 μM) and then, challenged with LPS for 24 h. Supernatants were collected to evaluate the concentration of IL1B and IL6 by ELISA. Explants treated with EPA from control groups reduced the concentrations of ILB (200μM) and IL6 (400 μM), and IL6 (50 μM; 100 μM) from the LPS-challenged group. DHA decreased the accumulation of IL1B and IL6 at 200 μM on explants from the LPS-challenged group, and 200 μM reduced IL6 from the control group. In contrast, explants treated with LNA only reduced the accumulation of IL1B to 400μM (from both groups). In conclusion, the EPA acid is the best anti-inflammatory option to decrease the concentration of both pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B and IL6) from LPS-challenged and control groups in bovine endometrial explants; while LNA evidence to be the last option to promote an anti-inflammatory response.</p> Luisa Cunha Carneiro, João Paulo Elsen Saut, Mariana de Oliveira Almeida, Sara Pedrosa Franco Barbosa, Erin Jane Williams, Hévila Dutra Barbosa de Cerqueira, Eneiva Carla Carvalho Celeghini Copyright (c) 2023 Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.usp.br/bjvras/article/view/214210 Thu, 03 Aug 2023 00:00:00 -0300