Regulation of HPV transcription
Keywords:Human papillomavirus (HPV), Transcription, Long Control Region, Differentiation
Human papillomavirus infection is associated with the development of malignant and benign neoplasms. Approximately 40 viral types can infect the anogenital mucosa and are categorized into high- and low-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus, depending on their association with the development of cervical carcinoma. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 and 18 are detected in 55% and 15% of all invasive cervical squamous cell carcinomas worldwide, respectively. Low-risk human papillomavirus 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts and are also associated with the development of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Human papillomavirus preferentially infects mitotic active cells of the basal layer from both mucosal and cutaneous epithelium through microabrasions. The viral life cycle synchronizes with the epithelial differentiation program, which may be due, in part, to the binding of differentially expressed cellular transcription factors to the long control region throughout the various epithelial layers. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which viral gene expression is regulated and the influence of human papillomavirus heterogeneity upon this phenomenon. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms may elucidate the particularities of human papillomavirus-associated pathogenesis and may provide new tools for antiviral therapy.