The evaluation of the Myxovirus Resistance 1 protein in serum and saliva to monitor disease activation in primary Sjögren’s syndrome
OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjo¨ gren’s syndrome (pSjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes dry eye and mouth. No laboratory parameters to monitor the activation of this disease have been identified. Therefore, any possible relationships between salivary and blood myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) and pSjS must be prospectively studied. METHODS: Thirty female patients with pSjS, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without secondary Sjo¨ gren’s syndrome (SjS) and 28 healthy control women were enrolled in this investigation. Analyses of MX1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La) tests by the strip immunoblot method, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests by immunofluorescence and the measurement of serum rheumatoid factor (RF), C3, C4, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed. RESULTS: The serum level of MX1 in patients without Raynaud phenomenon was higher than in those with Raynaud phenomenon (p:0.029, po0.05, statistically significant). There was a statistically significant positive association between hemoglobin levels and MX1 serum levels. No statistically significant association was found among the other parameters. Low MX1 levels were shown to be associated with both a low disease activity score based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjo¨ gren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and hydroxychloroquine use in all patients. CONCLUSION: MX1 levels have a considerable impact on the assessment of the disease activity in SjS. We believe that more-comprehensive studies should be performed on patients with pSjS who do not use hydroxychloroquine to prove this relationship and that MX1 levels should be used as a routine marker for the assessment of pSjS disease activity. Further studies are needed to create awareness of the role that MX1 has in the diagnosis of pSjS, which may help to uncover novel pathways for new therapeutic modalities.