Superficial dye penetration of two conventional ionomers used as dental fissures sealants


  • Marcella C. B. Malta Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
  • Márcia R. T. C. Andrade Universidade Federal Fluminense
  • Mirian de W. S. de Marsillac Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
  • Luiz H. M. Prates Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
  • Ricardo de S. Vieira Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina



Glass ionomer cements, Pit and fissure sealants, Materials testing


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate surface dye penetration of two conventional glass ionomer cements (GIC), one of them a high viscous ionomer. Methods: 20 standard disk samples measuring 2 mm thick and 4 mm in diameter were made for each conventional GIC. The high viscous ionomer was used as the control (Group 1). Samples were embedded in wax and submitted to pH cycling for 7 days simulating a high cariogenic challenge in a kiln (37ºC). All samples were brushed with an extra-soft bristles infant toothbrush to mimic oral hygiene after exposure to a demineralizing solution for 6 hours. The samples were immersed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 2 hours at the end of cycling. The Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test was used to analyze the difference between the two GIC. Results: All samples disclosed a superficial dye penetration of 0.6 to 1.5 mm depth. There was no statistical d ifference b etween t he G IC t ested ( p = 0.883). Conclusion: Both GIC tested in this study exhibited superficial dye penetration to depths of at least until their superficial third.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Marcella C. B. Malta, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (FOUERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

  • Márcia R. T. C. Andrade, Universidade Federal Fluminense

    Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Health Institute of the Federal University Fluminense (UFF), Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil

  • Mirian de W. S. de Marsillac, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (FOUERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

  • Luiz H. M. Prates, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    Department of Stomatology, Dental School of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

  • Ricardo de S. Vieira, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    Department of Stomatology, Dental School of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brazil


Frencken JE, Holmgren CJ. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) for dental caries. Nijmegen: STI Book; 1999.

Ahovuo-Saloranta A, Forss H, Walsh T, Nordblad A, Mäkelä M, Worthington HV. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in permanent teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;31(7):CD001830.

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. The reference Manual of Pediatric Dentistry [Internet]. Chicago: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2016 [cited 2019 Oct 2019]. Available from:

Davidson AL. Advances in Glass-Ionomer Cements. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006;14(Suppl):3-9.

Smales RJ, Gao W, Ho FT. In vitro evaluation of sealing pits and fissures with newer glass-ionomer cements developed for the ART technique. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1997;21(4):321-3.

Berg JH, Croll TP. Glass ionomer restorative cement systems: an update. Pediatr Dent. 2015;37(2):116-24.

Guggenberg R, May R, Stefan KP. New trends in glass-ionomer chemistry. Biomaterials. 1998;19(6):479-83.

Crisp S, Lewis BG, Wilson AD. Glass ionomer cements: Chemistry of erosion. J Dent Res. 1976;55(6):1032-41.

Bueno LS, Silva RM, Magalhães APR, Navarro MFL, Pascotto RC, Buzalaf MAR, et al. Positive correlation between fluoride release and acid erosion of restorative glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater. 2019;35(1):135-43.

Forss H, Seppä L. Studies on the effect of fluoride release by glass ionomers in the oral cavity. Adv Dent Res. 1995;9(4):389-93. 10.1177/08959374950090040801

Perez CR, Jr Hirata R, Silva AHMFT. Glaze/composite sealant on the 3-D surface roughness of esthetic materials. Oper Dent. 2009;34(6):674-80.

KaraoĞlanoĞlu S, Akgül N, Özdabak HN, Akgül HM. Effectiveness of surface protection for glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer and polyacid-modified composite resins. Dent Mater J. 2009;28(1):96-101.

Argenta RM, Tabchoury CP, Cury JA. A modified pH-cycling model to evaluate fluoride effect on enamel demineralization. Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2003;17(3):241-6.

Souchois MW, Vieira RS. Effect of a glass ionomer cement and a fluoride varnish on cross-sectional microhardness values of artificial occlusal caries: In vitro study. Ind J Dent Res. 2012;23(6):732-7.

Kuhn AT, Wilson AD. The dissolution mechanisms of silicate and glass-ionomer dental cements. Biomaterials. 1985;6(6):378-82.

Fukasawa M, Matsuya S, Yamane M. Mechanism for erosion of glass-ionomer cements in an acidic buffer solution. J Dent Res. 1987;66(12):1770-4.

Momoi Y, MC Cabe JF. Fluoride release from light-activated glass ionomer restorative cements. Dent Mater. 1993;9(3):151-4.

Wilson AD, Groffman DM, Kuhn AT. The release of fluoride and other chemical species from a glass-ionomer cement. Biomaterials. 1985;6(6):431-3.

Serra MC, Cury JA. The in vitro effect of glass-ionomer cement restoration on enamel subjected to a demineralization and remineralization model. Quintessence Int. 1992;23(2):143-7.

Tantbironjn D, Douglas WH, Versluis A. Inhibitive Effect of a Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement on Remote Enamel Artificial Caries. Caries Res. 1997;31(4):275-80.

Mejàre I, Mjör IA. Glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants: a clinical study. Scand J Dent Res. 1990;98(4):345-50.

Wilson AD, Prosser HJ, Powis DM. Mechanism of adhesion of polyelectrolyte cements to hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res. 1983;62(5):590-2.

Ngo H, Mount GJ, Peters MC. A study of glass-ionomer cement and its interface with enamel and dentin using a low-temperature, high-resolution scanning electron microscopic technique. Quintessence Int. 1997;28(1): 63-9.

Ten Cate JM, Buijs MJ, Damen JJM. The effects of GIC restorations on enamel and dentin demineralization and remineralization. Adv Dent Res. 1995;9(4):384-8.

Mustafa HA, Soares AP, Paris S, Elhennawy K, Zaslansky P. The forgotten merits of GIC restorations: a systematic review. Clin Oral Investig. 2020;24(7):2189-201.

Hicks MJ, Flaitz CM. Caries-like lesion formation in oclusal fissures: an in vitro study. Quintessence Int. 1986;17(7):405-10.

Carvalho JC, Ekstrand KR, Thylstrup A. Dental plaque and caries on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars in relation to stage of eruption. J Dent Res. 1989;68(5):773-9.






Original Research