O problema das elasticidades nos modelos de crescimento com restrição externa: contribuições ao debate.

Autores

  • Fabricio Jose Missio Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul. Unidade Universitária de Ponta Porã
  • Frederico Gonzaga Jayme Jr. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  • Octavio A. C. Conceição Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/0101-4161201545233ffo

Palavras-chave:

Crescimento econômico, restrição externa, evolucionismo e institucionalismo.

Resumo

O objetivo do trabalho é analisar o problema das elasticidades nos modelos de crescimento com restrição externa da tradição do crescimento puxado pela demanda agregada. Mais especificamente, analisar porque existem diferenças entre as elasticidades-renda da demanda por importações e exportações dos países industrializados em desenvolvimento com relação aos países desenvolvidos. Para tanto, inicialmente resgatamos o modelo benchmark de Thirlwall (1979), enfatizando o papel das referidas elasticidades na explicação das distintas taxas de crescimento entre os países. Em seguida, mostramos o desdobramento dos modelos demand led dessa tradição, bem como o que se considera ser uma lacuna importante dessa literatura, qual seja, a não explicação dos fatores que determinam a persistência de diferenças nas elasticidades do comércio mesmo com a industrialização de grande parte da “periferia”. Por fim, são apresentadas contribuições teóricas associadas a abordagens alternativas do pensamento econômico (pós-keynesianos, evolucionários, institucionalistas) que, ao complementarem essas lacunas, avançam em questões importantes no entendimento do processo de crescimento das economias em desenvolvimento. As considerações finais mostram que as elasticidades renda do comércio exterior dependem de uma série de características estruturais da economia (devem ser consideradas como endógenas nos referidos modelos) e que a persistência de diferenças requer uma análise mais complexa do processo de crescimento.

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Publicado

2015-06-30

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