Concepções materialistas sobre a sede imediata da consciência

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2178-6224v15i1p93-136

Palavras-chave:

Consciência primária, Correlato neural da consciência, Holismo, Materialismo, Localizacionismo, Sensório

Resumo

Este trabalho estuda, do ponto de vista materialista, o debate sobre qual é a sede física da “consciência primária”, ou seja, da forma mais básica de consciência, envolvendo sensações e emoções. Examinamos historicamente o problema de se tal sensório é localizado em uma pequena região do encéfalo ou se a consciência é distribuída de maneira holista. Destaque é dado aos escritos de neurofisiologistas da década de 1950, que se dividiam entre a afirmação de que a sede da consciência primária é subcortical, e visões mais holistas como a da tese da homogeneidade (funcionalismo). Busca-se explicar a transição que ocorreu ao final da década de 1960, com o papel predominante que se passou a dar para o neocórtex. A finalidade filosófica deste trabalho é regatar a importância da tese subcorticalista.

Referências

ALKIRE, Michael T.; HUDETZ, Anthony G. & TONONI, Giulio. Consciousness and anesthesia. Science, 322: 876-880, 2008.

ARMSTRONG, David M. Three types of consciousness [Com-mentary]. Pp. 235-241, in: Ciba Foundation (org.). Brain and mind. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979.

BAARS, Bernard J. & GAGE, Nichole M. Cognition, brain and con-sciousness: introduction to cognitive neuroscience. 2a ed. Burlington (MA): Academic Press, 2010.

BAILEY, Percival. The seat of the soul. Perspectives in Biology and Medi-cine, 2: 417-441, 1959.

BAILEY, Percival. Cortex and mind. Pp. 3-14, in: Scher, J. M. (org.). Theories of the mind. New York: Free Press, 1962.

BARRON, Andrew B. & KLEIN, Colin. What insects can tell us about the origins of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 113: 4900-4908, 2016.

BOGEN, Joseph E. On the neurophysiology of consciousness. I. An overview. II. Constraining the semantic problem. Consciousness and Cognition, 4: 52-62, 137-158, 1995.

BORING, Edwin G. Sensation and perception in the history of experimental psychology. New York: Appleton-Century, 1942.

CABANAC, M.; CABANAC, A.J. & PARENT, A. The emergence of consciousness in phylogeny. Behavioral Brain Research, 198: 267-272, 2009.

CAIRNS, Hugh. Disturbances of consciousness with lesions of the brain-stem and diencephalon. Brain, 75: 109-146, 1952.

CARPENTER, William B. Principles of human physiology. 6a ed. Lon-don: John Churchill, 1864.

CARTER, Rita; ALDRIDGE, S.; PAGE, M. & PARKER, S. O livro do cérebro, 4 vols. Trad. P. Frances. Edição especial da revista Mente & Cérebro. São Paulo: Duetto, 2009.

CHAPMAN, Loring F. & WOLFF, Harold G. The cerebral hemi-spheres and the highest integrative functions of man. A. M. A. Archives of Neurology, 1: 357-424, 1959.

COBB, Stanley. On the nature and locus of mind. A. M. A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 67: 172-177.

CRICK, Francis C. Function of the thalamic reticular complex: the searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 81: 4586-4590, 1984.

CRICK, Francis C. & KOCH, Christof. What is the function of the claustrum? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360: 1271-1279, 2005.

DAMÁSIO, António. A neurobiology for consciousness. Pp. 111-120, in: Metzinger, T. (org.). Neural correlates of consciousness: empirical and conceptual questions. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 2000.

DELAFRESNAYE, J.F.; ADRIAN, Edgar D.; BREMER, Frederic & JASPER, Herbert H. (orgs.). Brain mechanisms and consciousness. Oxford: Blackwell, 1954.

DESCARTES, René. As paixões da alma [1649]. Trad. J. Guinsburg & B. Prado Jr. Pp. 213-294, in: Os Pensadores. 2ª ed. São Paulo: Abril Cultural, 1979.

DRESLER, M.; WEHRLE, R.; SPOORMAKER, V.I.; KOCH, S.P.; HOLSBOER, F.; STEIGER, A.; OBRIG, H., SÄMANN, P.G. & CZISCH, M. Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study. Sleep, 35: 1017-1020, 2012.

EDELMAN, Gerald M. Bright air, brilliant fire: on the matter of the mind. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

ECCLES, John C. The neurophysiological basis of mind: the principles of neurophysiology. Oxford: Clarendon, 1953.

EVANS, Cedric O. The subject of consciousness. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970.

FELTEN, David L.; SHETTY, Anil N. Netter atlas de neurociência. Ilustrações Frank H. Netter. Trad. R. R. Santos. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2009.

FEINDEL, William. Mind, consciousness, and the neurosurgeon. Pp. 49-66, in: Awad, I. A. (org.). Philosophy of neurological surgery. Park Ridge (IL): American Association of Neurological Sur-geons, 1995.

FESSARD, Alfred E. Mechanisms of nervous integration and con-scious experience. Pp. 200-236, in: Delafresnaye et al., op. cit., 1954.

FOERSTER, Otfrid. Über die Bedeutung und Reichweite des Loka-lisationsprinzips im Nervensystem. Pp. 117-211, in: Géronne A. (org.), Sechsundvierzigster Kongress. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesell-schaft für Innere Medizin. Munich: Bergmann, 1934.

FRENCH, John D. Brain lesions associated with prolonged unconsciousness. A. M. A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 68: 727-740, 1952.

GAZZANIGA, Michael S. The consciousness instinct: unraveling the mystery of how the brain makes the mind. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2018.

GOLDSTEIN, Kurt. Der Aufbau der Organismus. Haia: Nijhoff, 1934. Tradução para o inglês: The organism. New York: Zone Books, 1995.

HAGMANN, Patric; CAMMOUN, L.; GIGANDET, X.; MEULI, R.; HONEY, C. J.; WEDEEN, V. J. & SPORNS, O. Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biology, 6: 1479-1493, 2008.

HOBSON, J. Allan. Toward a cellular neurophysiology of the reticular formation: conceptual and methodological milestones. Pp. 7-29, in: HOBSON, J. A. & BRAZIER, M. A. B. (orgs.). The reticular formation revisited: specifying function for a nonspecific system. New York: Raven Press, 1980.

HODGSON, Shadworth H. The philosophy of reflection. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1878.

JACKSON, John Hughlings. Remarks on evolution and dissolution of the nervous system. Journal of Mental Science, 33: 25-48, 1887.

JAMES, William. The principles of psychology. London: Macmillan, 1890.

JUNG, Richard. Correlation of bioelectrical and autonomic phe-nomena with alterations of consciousness and arousal in man. Pp. 310-344, in: Delafresnaye et al., op. cit., 1954.

KANDEL, Eric R. Em busca da memória [2006]. Trad. R. Rubino. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 2009.

KUHN, Thomas S. A estrutura das revoluções científicas [1962]. Trad. B. V. Boeira & N. Boeira. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1978.

KOCH, Christof; MASSIMINI, Marcello; BOLY, Melanie & TONONI, Giulio. Neural correlates of consciousness: progress and problems. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17: 307-322, 2016.

LABERGE, David L. Attention. Psychological Science, 1: 156-162, 1990.

LE BEAU, Jacques. Localisation cérébrale de la conscience. Revue Canadienne de Biologie, 1: 134-56, 1942.

LEDOUX, Joseph. Rethinking the emotional brain. Neuron, 73: 653-676, 2012.

LE GROS CLARK, Wilfrid E. The structure of the brain and the process of thinking. Pp. 12-24, in: LASLETT, P. (org.). The physi-cal basis of mind. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1950.

LLINÁS, Rodolfo R. & PARÉ, Denis. Of dreaming and wakeful-ness. Neuroscience, 44: 521-35, 1991.

LOW, Philip; PANKSEPP, Jaak; REISS, Diana; EDELMAN, Da-vid; VAN SWINDEREN, Bruno & KOCH, Christof. The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness. Disponível online: http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDeclarationOnConsciousness.pdf

MARSHALL, Louise H. & MAGOUN, Horace W. Discoveries in the human brain: neuroscience prehistory, brain structure, and function. New York: Springer, 1998.

MASHOUR, George A. & ALKIRE, Michael T. Consciousness, anesthesia, and the thalamocortical system. Anesthesiology, 118: 13-15, 2013.

MERKER, Björn. Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: a chal-lenge for neuroscience and medicine. Target article, commen-taries and author’s response. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30: 63-134, 2007.

MESULAM, M.-Marsel. Principles of behavioral and cognitive neurology. 2a ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

MEYERS, Russell. Dandy’s striatal theory of “the center of con-sciousness”: surgical evidence and logical analysis indicating its improbability. A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 65: 659-671, 1951.

MILL, John Stuart. A system of logic, ratiocinative and inductive. Vol. 1. London: John Parker, 1843.

MORABITO, Carmela. David Ferrier and Luigi Luciani on the localization of brain functions. Physis, 36: 387-405, 1999.

MORUZZI, Giuseppe & MAGOUN, Horace W. Brain stem re-ticular formation and activation of EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1: 455-473, 1949.

MUMFORD, David. On the computational architecture of the neocortex. I. The role of the thalamo-cortical loop. Biological Cy-bernetics, 65: 135-145, 1991.

NEWMAN, James. Thalamic contributions to attention and con-sciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 4: 142-193, 1995.

NIELSEN, Johannes M. & THOMPSON, George N. The en-grammes of psychiatry. Springfield (IL): Charles Thomas, 1947.

PANKSEPP, Jaak. Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5: 407-467, 1982.

PANKSEPP, Jaak. Forward: the MacLean legacy and some modern trends in emotion research. Pp. iv-xxvii, in: Cory, Jr., G. A. & Gardner, Jr., R. (orgs.). The evolutionary neuroethology of Paul MacLean: convergences and frontiers. Westport (CT): Praeger, 2002.

PARVIZI, Josef & DAMÁSIO, António R. Consciousness and the brainstem. Cognition, 79: 135-160, 2001.

PENFIELD, Wilder. The cerebral cortex in man. I. The cerebral cortex and consciousness. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 40(3): 417-442, 1938.

PENFIELD, Wilder. The centrencephalic integrating system. Brain, 81: 231-234, 1958.

PENFIELD, Wilder. O mistério da mente [1975]. São Paulo: Atheneu/Edusp, 1983.

PESSOA JR., Osvaldo. A consciência enquanto observação do cérebro. Pp. 201-219, in: Ferreira, F. R. M.; Haddad Jr., H.; No-gueira, M. I. & Pessoa Jr., O. (orgs.). História e filosofia da neurociên-cia. São Paulo: Liber Ars, 2015.

PIÉRON, Henri. De l’apport actuel de la neurophysiologie à la psychologie. L’année psychologique, 53: 279-319, 1953.

PROCHASKA, Georg. A dissertation on the functions of the nervous system [1784]. Trad. T. Laycock. Pp. 363-450, in Unzer, J. A. & Pro-chaska, G. ‘The principles of physiology’ and ‘A dissertation on the functions of the nervous system’. London: Sydenham Society, 1851.

REICHARDT, Martin. Hirnstamm und Psychiatrie. Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 68: 470-506, 1928. Disponibilizado onli-ne em duas partes pela European Neurology, 2008.

REES, Geraint; KREIMAN, Gabriel & KOCH, Christof. Neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3: 261-270, 2002.

ROGET, Peter M. Animal and vegetable physiology considered with reference to natural theology. Vol. II. London: W. Pickering, 1834.

ROSENTHAL, David M. A theory of consciousness. Pp. 729-754, in: BLOCK, N.; FLANAGAN, O. & GUZELDERE, G. (orgs.). The nature of consciousness: Philosophical debates. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 1992.

ROTH, Gerhard. The evolution and ontogeny of consciousness. Pp. 76-97, in: METZINGER, T. (org.). Neural correlates of con-sciousness: empirical and conceptual questions. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press, 2000.

SAHRAIE, A.; WEISKRANTZ, L.; BARBUR, J. L.; SIMMONS, A.; WILLIAMS, S. C. R. & BRAMMER, M. J. Pattern of neu-ronal activity associated with conscious and unconscious pro-cessing of visual signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Scienc-es U.S.A., 94: 9406-9411, 1997.

SCHÄFER, Edward A. The cerebral cortex. Pp. 697-782, in: Schäfer, E.A. (org.). Text-book of physiology. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: Pentland, 1900.

SCHEIBEL, Madge E. & SCHEIBEL, Arnold B. The anatomy of constancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 290: 421-435, 1977.

SCHILLER, Francis. Consciousness reconsidered. A. M. A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 67: 199-227.

SCHMITT, L. I.; WIMMER, R. D.; NAKAJIMA, M.; HAPP, M.; MOFAKHAM, S. & HALASSA, M. M. Thalamic amplification of cortical connectivity sustains attentional control. Nature, 545: 219-223, 2017.

SEARLE, John. A redescoberta da mente [1992]. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1997.

SHIGENO, S.; ANDREWS, P. L. R.; PONTE, G. & FIORITO, G. Cefalopod brains: an overview of current knowledge to facilitate comparison with vertebrates. Frontiers in Physiology, 9: (article 952) 1-16, 2018.

SNEDDON, Lynne U. Pain perception in fish: evidence and impli-cations for the use of fish. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 18: 209-229, 2011.

SOKOLOV, Eugene. Psychophysiology of consciousness. Trad. do russo por A. Chernorizov; K. Chernorizov & D. Bowden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

SPENCER, Herbert. Principles of psychology. Vol. 1. 3a ed. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1890.

SPERRY, Roger. Consciousness, personal identity and the divided brain. Neuropsychologia, 22: 661-673, 1984.

THOMPSON, Robert. (1993). Centrencephalic theory, the general learning system, and subcortical dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 702: 197-223, 1993.

TONONI, Giulio & EDELMAN, Gerald M. Consciousness and complexity. Science, 282: 1846-1851, 1998.

TONONI, Giulio & KOCH, Christof. The neural correlates of consciousness: an update. Annals of the New York Academy of Sci-ences, 1124: 239-261, 2008.

TROLAND, Leonard T. Principles of psychophysiology. Vol. III: Cerebra-tion and action. New York: Greenwood Press, 1932.

VELLY, L. J; REY, M. F.; BRUDER, N. J.; GOUVITSOS, F. A.; WITJAS, T.; REGIS, J. M.; PERAGUT, J. C. & GOUIN, F. M. Differential dynamic of action on cortical and subcortical struc-tures of anesthetic agents during induction of anesthesia. Anesthe-siology, 107: 202-212, 2007.

WALSHE, Francis M. R. The brain-stem conceived as the “highest level” of function in the nervous system; with particular refer-ence to the “automatic apparatus” of Carpenter (1850) and to the “centrencephalic integrating system” of Penfield. Brain, 80: 510-539, 1957.

WARD, Lawrence M. The thalamic dynamic core theory of con-sciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 20: 464-486, 2011.

WATT, D. The centrencephalon and thalamocortical integration: neglected contributions of periaqueductal gray. Consciousness and Emotion, 1: 91-114, 2000.

WEISKRANTZ, Lawrence. Some contributions of neuropsycholo-gy of vision and memory to the problem of consciousness. Pp. 183-99, in: MARCEL, A. J. & BISIACH, E. (eds.). Consciousness in contemporary science. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

ZEKI, S. & BARTELS, A. Toward a theory of visual conscious-ness. Consciousness and Cognition, 8: 225-259, 1999.

Downloads

Publicado

2020-11-17

Como Citar

PESSOA JUNIOR, O. F. . Concepções materialistas sobre a sede imediata da consciência. Filosofia e História da Biologia (Fil. Hist. Biol.) , [S. l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 93-136, 2020. DOI: 10.11606/issn.2178-6224v15i1p93-136. Disponível em: https://www.revistas.usp.br/fhb/article/view/fhb-v15-n1-06. Acesso em: 11 maio. 2021.

Edição

Seção

Artigos