O paradoxo da emancipação: populismo, democracia e a alma da esquerda

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-9800.v27i1p145-172

Palavras-chave:

Capitalismo, Dominação, Justiça, Neoliberalismo, Populismo, Democracia radical, Social-democracia, Socialismo

Resumo

Tradução de: Azmanova, A. (2019). The paradox of emancipation: populism, democracy and the soul of the Left. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 45 (9-10), 1186-1207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453719872291. Traduzido por Ivan Rodrigues

 

Que conexão há entre o vagalhão populista e a queda do apoio eleitoral às tradicionais posições ideológicas à esquerda? Como podemos explicar o declínio da esquerda sob condições que deveriam estar catapultando-a para o poder? Argumento que a esquerda, na sua reação tanto à hegemonia neoliberal como à ascensão do populismo, está afetada pelo que Nietzsche chamou de “preconceito democrático” – o reflexo de ler a história como o advento e a crise da democracia. Em decorrência disso, a esquerda tenta agora recuperar a democracia por meio da ressurreição do conjunto de políticas de crescimento-e-redistribuição característico da “era dourada” da social-democracia nas três décadas após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Esse gesto nostálgico, todavia, está levando a esquerda a outro impasse, àquilo que chamo de “paradoxo da emancipação” – ao lutar por igualdade e inclusão como condições essenciais da cidadania democrática, a esquerda está validando a ordem social no interior da qual ela está buscando igualdade e inclusão, a saber, a ordem social moldada pela produção concorrencial de lucro, a qual é a causa básica pela qual as nossas sociedades se encontram encalacradas. Concluo a análise propondo a construção de uma contra-hegemonia contra o capitalismo neoliberal mediante o alargamento do enfoque da esquerda, de modo a que a esquerda não se restrinja às suas preocupações tradicionais com a desigualdade e a exclusão, mas dê conta também da injustiça da crescente insegurança social e econômica – um dano cujo alcance vai além dos trabalhadores pobres. Uma agenda reformulada de justiça social que tenha como eixo questões de insegurança econômica que atravessam a “clivagem de classes” possibilitaria à esquerda mobilizar uma ampla coalizão de forças sociais para a transformação radical e duradoura em direção à democracia socialista.

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Publicado

2022-06-29

Como Citar

Azmanova, A., & Sousa Filho, J. I. R. de. (2022). O paradoxo da emancipação: populismo, democracia e a alma da esquerda. Cadernos De Filosofia Alemã: Crítica E Modernidade, 27(1), 145-172. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-9800.v27i1p145-172

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