Dialética e o Método da Ética em Aristóteles

Authors

  • Raphael Zillig Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-9471.v12i1p129-172

Keywords:

dialectics, method, endoxa, Aristotle, ethics

Abstract

Há várias décadas, tem tido grande aceitação a tese segundo a qual a dialética constitui o marco metodológico fundamental da filosofia prática de Aristóteles. Essa tese tem sido associada à muito discutida passagem metodológica de Ética Nicomaqueia VII 1, 1145b2-7. Com efeito, a leitura tradicional de tal passagem extrai dela um procedimento assentado sobre o exame de aporias obtidas a partir de um conjunto de endoxa ou “opiniões reputáveis”. Em virtude de estar integralmente voltado a endoxa e de seu caráter diaporemático, o procedimento assim compreendido pode ser associado à dialética que forma o foco dos Tópicos. Neste trabalho, pretendo examinar as limitações da interpretação tradicional e propor uma alternativa de leitura para a passagem metodológica de EN VII 1. Na leitura proposta, a passagem deixa de ter uma conexão fundamental com a dialética. Disso não se segue que procedimentos dialéticos não tenham qualquer papel no método da filosofia prática de Aristóteles. No entanto, na leitura proposta a passagem de EN VII 1 deixa de fornecer a base para a tese segundo a qual tal método é fundamentalmente de natureza dialética.

 

For the last decades, the thesis according to which dialectic provides the core methodological standard for Aristotle’s practical philosophy has had wide acceptance. This thesis has been associated to the much-discussed methodological passage of Nicomachean Ethics VII 1, 1145b2-7. As a matter of fact, the traditional reading of that passage finds in it a procedure that is based on the survey of aporiai that have been drawn from a set of endoxa or “reputable opinions”. As the procedure so understood is thoroughly focused on endoxa and in virtue of its diaporematic approach, it can be related to dialectic as it is discussed in the Topics. In this paper, I intend to address the limitations of the traditional interpretation and put forward an alternative reading for the methodological passage of Nicomachean Ethics VII 1. In the proposed reading, the passage does not have a tight connection with dialectic. From this it does not follow that dialectical procedures play no role in the method of Aristotle’s practical philosophy. However, in the proposed reading the passage of NE VII 1 no longer provides the basis for the thesis that such method is to be understood as being fundamentally dialectical in its nature.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allan, D. J. (ed.) Aristotelis - De Caelo. Oxford, Clarendon, 1936.

Barnes, Jonathan. (ed.) The complete works of Aristotle – The revised oxford translation. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1984.

Barnes, Jonathan. “Aristotle and the methods of ethics”. Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 34, 1980, p. 490-511.

Barnes, Jonathan. Posterior Analytics. Oxford, Clarendon Press, [1975] 1993.

Berti, E. “O uso ‘científico’ da dialética em Aristóteles”. [trad. Verçosa Filho, E. G.] In: Berti, E. Novos estudos aristotélicos I – Epistemologia, lógica e dialética. São Paulo, Loyola, 2010. Originalmente publicado em Giornale di Metafisica. Vol. 17, n. 1, 1995, p. 169-190.

Bolton, R. “The epistemological basis of aristotelian dialectic”. In: SIM, M. From puzzles to principles? Lanham, Lexington, 1999. Originalmente publicado em Devereux, D.; Pellegrin, P. Biologie, logique et métaphysique chez Aristote. Paris, CNRS, 1990.

Bonitz, H. Index Aristotelicus. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, [1870] 1961. https://doi.org/10.1515/ 9783110852332

Bostock, D. Aristotle’s Ethics. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 2000.

Bronstein, D. Aristotle on knowledge and learning. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 2016. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198724902.001.0001

Brunschwig, J. Aristote Topiques (Livres I-IV). Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1967.

Brunschwig, J. Aristote Topiques (Livres V-VIII). Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2007.

Burnet, J. The ethics of Aristotle. London, Methuen, 1900.

Burnyeat, M. “Good repute”. London review of books. vol. 8, n. 19, 1986, pp. 11-12.

Bywater, I. (ed.) Aristotelis – Ethica Niomachea. Oxford, Clarendon, 1894.

Cleary, J. “Phainomena in Aristotle’s methodology. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, vol. 2, n. 1, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1080/09672559408570784

Cooper, J. M. “Nicomachean Ethics VII 1-2. In Natali, C. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics, Book VII. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 2009.

Cooper, J. M. Reason and human good in Aristotle. Indianapolis, Hackett,1986.

Crisp, R. (trad.) Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P.2004.

Crisp, R. “Aristotle on dialectic”. Philosophy, n. 66, 1991, p. 522-524.

Denyer, N. Language, thought and falsehood in ancient greek philosophy. London, Routledge, 1991.

Devereux, D. “Scientific and ethical methods in Aristotle’s Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics.” In: Henry, D.; Nielsen, K. M. Bridging the gap between Aristotle’s science and ethics. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511846397.008

Dirlmeier, F. Aristoteles – Eudemische Ethik. Berlin, Akademie Verlag, [1963] 1984. https://doi.org/10.1524/9783050048741

Frede, D. “The endoxon mystique: what endoxa are and what they are not”. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, vol. 43, 2012, p. 185-215. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666 164.003.0007

Greenwood, L. H. G. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics – Book Six. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P. 1909.

Grote, G. Aristotle. Vol. 1. London, John Murray, 1872.

Hamelin, O. Le système d’ Aristote. Paris, Librairie Félix Alcan, 1920.

Hardie, W. F. R. Aristotle’s ethical theory. Oxford, Clarendon, 1980. https://doi.org/10.1093/ acprof:oso/9780198246329.001.0001

Haskins, E. “Endoxa, epistemological optimism, and Aristotle’s rhetorical project”. Philosophy & Rhetoric. vol. 37, n. 1, 2004, p. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1353/par.2004.0010

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01064006

Hussain, M. “For dialectic puts questions about matters which philosophy knows”. In SIM, M. From puzzles to principles? Lanham, Lexington, 1999.

Irwin, T. (trad.) Nicomachean Ethics – Translated with introduction, notes and glossary by Terence Irwin. 2 ed. Indianapolis, Hackett, 1999.

Irwin, T. “Ways to first principles: Aristotle’s methods of discovery”. Philosophical Topics, vol. XV, n. 2, 1987.

Irwin, T. Aristotle’s first principles. Oxford, Clarendon, 1988.

Joachim, H. H. (ed.) Aristotle on coming-to-be and passing away. Oxford, Clarendon, 1926.

Johansen, T. “Myth and logos in Aristotle”. In: BUXTON, R. From myth to reason. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 1999.

Karbowski, J. “Endoxa, facts, and the starting points of the Nicomachean Ethics”. In HENRY, D.; NIELSEN, K. M. Bridging the gap between Aristotle’s science and ethics. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P. 2015b. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511846397.007

Karbowski, J. “Phainomena as witnesses and examples: the methodology of Eudemian Ethics I 6. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, vol. 49, 2015a, p. 193-226.

Kraut, R. “How to justify ethical propositions: Aristotle’s method”. In Kraut. The Blackwell guide to Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Malden, Blackwell, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1002/ 9780470776513

May, H. Aristotle’s ethics. London, Continuum, 2010.

Mckirahan, R. Principles and proofs. Princeton, Princeton U. P. 1992.

Moraux, P. “La joute dialectique d’après le huitième livre des Topiques. In: Owen, G. E. L. Aristotle on dialectic – The Topics. Oxford, Clarendon, 1968.

Natali, C. “Posterior Analytics and the definition of happiness in NE I”. Phronesis 55, 2010, p. 304-324. https://doi.org/10.1163/156852810X523905

Natali, C. “Rhetorical and scientific aspects of Nicomachean Ethics”. Phronesis 52, 2007, p. 364-381. https://doi.org/10.1163/156852807X229258

Nussbaum, M. The Fragility of Goodness. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P. 1986. https://doi.org/ 10.1017/cbo9780511817915

Owen, G. E. L. “Tithenai ta phainomena”. In MANSION, S. Aristote et les problèmes de méthode. Louvain, Publications Universitaires de Louvain, 1961.

Pakaluk, M. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics – an introduction. Cambridge, Cambridge U. P. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511802041

Peck, A. L. (ed.; trad.) Aristotle – Historia Animalium. Cambridge, Harvard U. P. 1991.

Pereira, Oswaldo Porchat. “Voltando à dialética de Aristóteles”. Analytica, v. 8, n. 1, 2004, p. 143-188.

Pereira, Oswaldo Porchat. Ciência e dialética em Aristóteles. São Paulo, Editora UNESP, 2000.

Pritzl, K. “Opinions as appearances: endoxa in Aristotle”. Ancient Philosophy, n. 14, 1994, p. 41-50.

Reeve, C. D. C. Practices of reason. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 1992.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotelis Ars Rhetorica. Oxford, Clarendon, 1959.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotelis De Anima. Oxford, Clarendon, 1956.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotelis Politica. Oxford, Clarendon, 1957.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotelis Topica et Sophistici Elenchi. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1958.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotle’s Metaphysics – A revised text with introduction and commentary by W. D. Ross. Oxford, Clarendon, 1924.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotle’s Physics. Oxford, Clarendon, 1936.

Ross, W. D. (ed.) Aristotle’s Prior and Posterior Analytics. Oxford, Clarendon, 1949.

Ross, W. D. (trad.) “Ethica Nicomachea”. In Ross, W. D. The works of Aristotle, V. IX, Oxford, Clarendon, 1925.

Ross, W. D. (trad.) Brown, L. (rev.) The Nicomachean Ethics – Translated by David Ross, revised with an introduction and notes by Lesley Brown. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 2009.

Ross, W. D. (trad.) Metaphysica. Oxford, Clarendon, 1908.

Ross, W. D. Aristotle. London, Routledge, [1923] 1995.

Salmieri, G. “Aristotle’s Non-‘Dialectical’ Methodology in the Nicomachean Ethics. Ancient Philosophy, vol. 29, 2009, p. 311-335. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil200929228

Sim, M. “Introduction”. In: Sim. (ed.) From puzzles to principles? Lanham, Lexington, 1999.

Slomkowski, P. Aristotle’s Topics. Leiden, Brill, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004320994

Slomkowski, P. Review of Smith, R. Aristotle: Topics: Books I and VIII. The Classical Review. v. 49/01, 1999, p. 23-25.

Smith, R. “Aristotle on the uses of dialectic”. Synthese 96, 1993, p. 335-358.

Smith, R. “Dialectic and method in Aristotle”. In: SIM, M. From puzzles to principles? Lanham, Lexington, 1999.

Smith, R. Aristotle Topics – Books I and VIII. Oxford, Oxford U. P. 1997.

Stewart, J. A. Notes on the Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle. Oxford, Clarendon, 1892.

Wallies, M. (ed.) Alexandri Aphrodisiensis - In Aristotelis Topicorum Libri Octo Commentaria. Berlin, Reimer, 1891.

Walzer, R. R.; Mingay, J. M. (ed.) Aristotelis – Ethica Eudemia. Oxford, Clarendon, 1991.

Zingano, M. “Acrasia e o método da ética”. In: Zingano. Estudos de ética antiga. São Paulo, Discurso Editorial, 2007.

Zingano, M. “Dialética, indução e inteligência na aquisição dos primeiros princípios. Analytica, v. 8, n. 1, 2004, p. 27-41.

Zuppolini, B. Ontological underpinnings of Aristotle’s philosophy of science. Tese de doutoramento. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 2017.

Published

2018-06-18

How to Cite

Zillig, R. (2018). Dialética e o Método da Ética em Aristóteles. Journal of Ancient Philosophy, 12(1), 129-172. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-9471.v12i1p129-172

Issue

Section

Articles