Correlation of salivary immunoglobulin A with Body Mass Index and fat percentage in overweight/obese children
Keywords:Gingivitis, Saliva, Pediatric obesity
Obesity is considered a risk factor for periodontal health due to the lowgrade inflammation promoted by the increased adipose tissue. Objective: This study aimed to determine correlations and associations between gingival inflammation (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and Gingival Index), salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), and salivary parameters (salivary flow and osmolality) in normal-weight and overweight/obese children. Material and Methods: Ninety-one children, aged 6 to 12 years old (8.6±1.9 years), were divided into two groups according to their body mass index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold measurements and body fat percentage: normalweight group (NWG; n=50) and overweight/obese group (OG; n=41). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, and salivary collection. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association tests (p<0.05). Results: OG presented statistically higher s-IgA values compared with NWG, especially among the obese children (p<0.05). Significant positive correlations between s-IgA and salivary osmolality in OG (p<0.05), and between s-IgA and BMI values (p<0.05) and body fat percentage (p<0.05) were observed among all the children. Effect size varied from moderate for s-IgA values (d=0.57) to large for BMI (d=2.60). Conclusion: Gingival inflammation and salivary parameters were similar for NWG and OG; however, s-IgA presented higher values in OG, with correlations between BMI and body fat percentage.