Inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite on progression of artificial enamel caries
Keywords:Graphene, Silver, Nanoparticles, Antibacterial agents, Dental caries
The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Material and Methods: Enamel specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight treatment groups (n=13), as follows: group 1 was inoculated with S. mutans grown in Brain Heart Infusion containing 1% sucrose (1% BHIS), as negative control; groups 2–4 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different rGO/Ag concentrations (0.08, 0.12, 0.16 mg/mL) + 1% BHIS; group 5–7 were inoculated with S. mutans grown in the presence of different agents (0.16 mg/mL reduced graphene oxide, 0.16 mg/mL silver nanoparticles, 10 ppm NaF) + 1% BHIS; group 8 was mixed with 1% BHIS, without inoculation. Artificial enamel carious lesions were produced by S. mutans biofilm model for 7 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to analyze roughness and morphology of the enamel surface. Polarized light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to measure the lesion depth and the relative optical density (ROD) of the demineralized layer. Results: Compared with the control groups, the rGO/Ag groups showed: (a) reduced enamel surface roughness; (b) much smoother and less eroded surfaces; (c) shallower lesion depth and less mineral loss. Conclusion: As a novel composite material, rGO/Ag can be a promising antibacterial agent for caries prevention.