Periodontal disease, peri-implant disease and levels of salivary biomarkers IL-1β, IL-10, RANK, OPG, MMP-2, TGF-β and TNF-α: follow-up over 5 years
Keywords:Periodontitis, Peri-implant mucositis, Saliva, Biomarkers, Cytokines
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of salivary biomarkers IL-1β, IL-10, RANK, OPG, MMP-2, TG-β and TNF-α in individuals with diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis in the absence or presence of periodontal and peri-implant maintenance therapy (TMPP) over 5 years. Material and Methods: Eighty individuals diagnosed with peri-implant mucositis were divided into two groups: one group that underwent periodontal and peri-implant regularly maintenance therapy, called GTP (n=39), and a second group that received no regular maintenance GNTP (n=41). Each participant underwent a complete periodontal and peri-implant clinical examination. Collection of saliva samples and radiographic examination to evaluate peri-implant bone levels were conducted at two times: initial examination (T1) and after 5 years (T2). The salivary samples were evaluated through ELISA for the following markers: IL-1β, IL-10, RANK, OPG, MMP-2, TGF and TNF-α. Results: A higher incidence of peri-implantitis was observed in the GNTP group (43.9%) than in the GTP group (18%) (p=0.000). All individuals (n=12) who presented peri-implant mucositis and had resolution at T2 were in the GTP group. After 5 years, there was an increase in the incidence of periodontitis in the GNTP group compared to the GTP group (p=0.001). The results of the study revealed an increase in the salivary concentration of TNF-α in the GNTP group compared to the GTP group. The other salivary biomarkers that were evaluated did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: The salivary concentration of TNF-α was increased in individuals with worse periodontal and peri-implant clinical condition and in those with a higher incidence of peri-implantitis, especially in the GNTP group. Longitudinal studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate the role of this biomarker in peri-implant disease.