Evolution of mirror-image pain in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis mouse model
Keywords:Mirror-image pain, Osteoarthritis, Complete Freund adjuvant, Temporomandibular joint, Nocifensive behaviors
Mirror-image pain is a kind of pain that occurs on the contralateral side, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Objective: To develop an osteoarthritis mouse model for investigating mirror-image pain through observing nocifensive behaviors, histological changes, and nociceptive activity at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the chemical induction of unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Methodology: We randomly divided 6-week-old mice into sham and complete Freund adjuvant groups. To induce nocifensive behaviors, we applied 0.04 g of von Frey filament, 10 psi of air puff, and cold acetone on both sides of whisker pads at different days. The histology of TMJ on both sides was observed by hematoxylin/eosin staining and microcomputed tomography scanning. Furthermore, the nociceptive activity was evaluated using the phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) and a microglia marker at different days in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Results: Nocifensive behaviors against mechanical and temperature stimuli on the contralateral side became stronger than the baseline on day 28, in agreement with the elevation of the pCREB and the microglia marker in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Thus, hypernociception on the contralateral side occurred at day 28. Conclusions: Clearly, the TMJ model with unilateral osteoarthritis exhibited mirror-image pain. Therefore, this model is useful in investigating the pathogenesis of pain and in developing treatments.
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