Cephalometric changes during aging in subjects with normal occlusion





Age factors, Balanced dental occlusion, Aging, Cephalometry


Objective: To assess craniofacial changes from early adulthood to the seventh decade of life in individuals with normal occlusion. Methodology:  The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 21 subjects with normal occlusion (11 male, 10 female), taken at 17 (T1) and 61 years of age (T2). Anteroposterior and vertical maxillomandibular relationships, and dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes were analyzed. Interphase comparisons were performed using paired t-tests. Differences between sexes, and subgroups with and without tooth loss were evaluated using t-tests (p<0.05). Results: Maxillary and mandibular anterior displacement, and facial and ramus height increased from T1 to T2. Maxillary molars showed significant mesial angulation. Maxillary and mandibular molars, and mandibular incisors developed vertically during the evaluation period. Soft tissue changes included a decrease of the nasolabial angle, upper and lower lip retrusion, decrease of upper lip thickness and increase of the lower lip and soft chin thickness. Maxillary incisor exposure by the upper lip decreased 3.6 mm in 40 years. Males presented counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, whereas females showed mandibular clockwise rotation and backward displacement of the chin. The group with tooth loss showed a greater increase of the posterior facial height and ramus height. Conclusion: We observed aging changes in dentoskeletal structures and soft tissue, as well as sexual differences for craniofacial changes during the maturational process. Subjects with multiple tooth losses showed a greater increase in mandibular ramus height.


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