Childhood mortality: still a global priority
Palavras-chave:childhood mortality, child health, global health, millennium development goals
Mortality of children under-5 continues to be a global priority. In 2012, 6.6 million children under-5 died worldwide; more than half of these deaths are due to diseases that are preventable and treatable through simple, affordable interventions. In response to the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) which called, through MDG4,to “reduceby two thirds the under-5 child mortality, between 1990 and 2015”, global organizations and many countries set targets and developed specific strategies to reduce child mortality and monitor progress.As a result, the number of deaths in children under-5 worldwide declined from 12.4 million in 1990 to 6.6 in 2012. Under-5 child mortality dropped in all regions of the world. However, two major challenges face the international community: The wide disparity in the risk of child death among countries, and the emerging role of neonatal death as a major component of child mortality. In order to continue the progress in reducing under-5 child mortality worldwide, current efforts must continue and new strategies need to be implemented to focus on preventing neonatal deaths as they start to represent a larger proportion of under-5 child deaths. In particular, further reduction in neonatal mortality will depend heavily on improving maternal health (MDG5).The world leaders continue to support the MDGs. In 2010, in a major push to accelerate progress on women’s and children’s health, a number of Heads of State and Government from developed and developing countries, along with the private sector, foundations, international organizations, civil society and research organizations, pledged over $40 billion in resources over the next five years.
United Nations – Millennium Development Goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml. Accessed November 20, 20139 .
Wang H, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Lofgren KT, Rajaratnam JK, Marcus JR, Levin-Rector A, Levitz C, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. Age-specific and sex-specific mortality in 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. 2012 Dec 13; 380: 2071–2094.
UNICEF. Levels and trends in child mortality report, 2013 – estimates developed by the UN Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. http://www.childinfo.org/files/ Child_Mortality_Report_2013.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2013.
UNICEF. 2013 Statistical snapshot. Child mortality. http://www.childinfo.org/files/Child_Mortality_Stat_Snapshot_e-version_Sep_17.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2013.
Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2010 Jun 5;375(9730):1969-87. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60549-1. Epub 2010 May 11.
Denno DM. Global Child Health. Pediatr Rev. 32;e25-e38, 2011.
United nations - The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2013. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/report-2013/mdg-report-2013-english.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2013.
World Health Organization – Children: reducing mortality. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/. Accessed November 20, 2013.
March of Dimes, et al., Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth, edited by Christopher P. Howson, Mary V. Kinney and Joy E. Lawn, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2012.
United Nations. Keeping the promise – United to achieve the millennium development goals. http://www.un.org/en/mdg/summit2010/pdf/ZeroDraftOutcomeDocument_31May2010rev2.pdf. Accessed November 20,2013
CODE OF CONDUCT FOR JOURNAL PUBLISHERS
Publishers who are Committee on Publication Ethics members and who support COPE membership for journal editors should:
- Follow this code, and encourage the editors they work with to follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Edi- tors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf)
- Ensure the editors and journals they work with are aware of what their membership of COPE provides and en- tails
- Provide reasonable practical support to editors so that they can follow the COPE Code of Conduct for Journal Editors (http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/New_Code.pdf_)
- Define the relationship between publisher, editor and other parties in a contract
- Respect privacy (for example, for research participants, for authors, for peer reviewers)
- Protect intellectual property and copyright
- Foster editorial independence
Publishers should work with journal editors to:
- Set journal policies appropriately and aim to meet those policies, particularly with respect to:
– Editorial independence
– Research ethics, including confidentiality, consent, and the special requirements for human and animal research
– Transparency and integrity (for example, conflicts of interest, research funding, reporting standards
– Peer review and the role of the editorial team beyond that of the journal editor
– Appeals and complaints
- Communicate journal policies (for example, to authors, readers, peer reviewers)
- Review journal policies periodically, particularly with respect to new recommendations from the COPE
- Code of Conduct for Editors and the COPE Best Practice Guidelines
- Maintain the integrity of the academic record
- Assist the parties (for example, institutions, grant funders, governing bodies) responsible for the investigation of suspected research and publication misconduct and, where possible, facilitate in the resolution of these cases
- Publish corrections, clarifications, and retractions
- Publish content on a timely basis