O colonialismo informal da Egiptologia: da missão francesa ao Estado de segurança

Autores

  • Christian Langer Universidade de Pequim

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2177-4218.v12i1p243-268

Palavras-chave:

História da Egiptologia, Decolonialidade, Eurocentrismo

Resumo

Esta contribuição é uma revisão crítica da história colonial da Egiptologia. Ele traça o desenvolvimento do campo desde seus primeiros dias sob o colonialismo europeu e a competição geopolítica intraeuropeia até o advento do controle egípcio nos tempos atuais. A exploração do passado do Egito antigo foi enquadrada como parte de uma missão civilizadora por meio da qual a Europa arrancaria o Egito das garras da dominação otomana e restauraria a terra à sua antiga grandeza, e também como um veículo para os interesses ocidentais no Nordeste da África. Por meio da Bíblia cristã e do antigo domínio grego e romano, o Egito foi posicionado como uma forma inicial de civilização ocidental, portanto, reforçando as reivindicações europeias sobre a área e possibilitando a apropriação da história egípcia. Estudiosos europeus, ao promoverem a ideia do antigo Egito como um paraíso perdido e paternalista, criaram uma estrutura ocidentalizada e um enquadramento e centro-ocidental para seu estudo, que ainda hoje inspira os padrões de produção do conhecimento, o qual pode ser identificado na produção acadêmica dos centros geográficos e nas línguas primárias em que são produzidos. Os egípcios, cada vez mais autônomos desde a descolonização formal na década de 1950, posteriormente adotaram e mantiveram as práticas estabelecidas quando o controle formal sobre o passado egípcio passou para suas mãos. As narrativas coloniais da antiguidade foram usadas para apoiar o turismo como uma economia vital e passaram a servir ao nacionalismo egípcio e à legitimação das relações de poder existentes, enquadrando a história egípcia como um contínuo do governo do homem forte. O artigo traça essa transição do colonialismo formal para o informal ao discuti-la a partir de conceitos descoloniais, tal como a matriz colonial de poder.

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Biografia do Autor

Christian Langer, Universidade de Pequim

Pós-doutorando na Universidade de Pequim e pesquisador visitante no Centre for History and Culture, no BNU-HKBU United International College in Zhuhai, China.

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2021-03-12

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Langer, C. (2021). O colonialismo informal da Egiptologia: da missão francesa ao Estado de segurança. Mare Nostrum, 12(1), 243-268. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2177-4218.v12i1p243-268

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