Egipto, Africa Nororiental y Oriente Medio durante la Edad del Bronce Temprano: Geopolítica e Intercambios


  • Juan Carlos Moreno García Centre de Recherches Egyptologiques de la Sorbonne - CRES



Caravana, comercio, Ebla, Egipto, Levante, mercader, Nubia


Egipto formaba parte de una tupida red de intercambios que conectaba Africa nororiental con Eurasia y el norte del Océano Índico durante la Edad del Bronce Temprano. Tradicionalmente se había supuesto que la monarquía egipcia había sido el motor fundamental de tales contactos mediante la organización de expediciones enviadas hacia los territorios vecinos, en busca de productos exóticos y preciosos. Sin embargo, las investigaciones más recientes revelan la importancia del tráfico de bienes modestos y la participación de actores privados, no institucionales. De ahí que tales intercambios no sólo no disminuyan tras la crisis de la monarquía a partir de 2160 antes de Cristo sino que incluso florezcan y fomenten tanto el aumento del tamaño de las ciudades como la intervención de poderes extranjeros en calidad de intermediarios y socios comerciales.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Juan Carlos Moreno García, Centre de Recherches Egyptologiques de la Sorbonne - CRES

Juan Carlos Moreno García es Doctor en Egiptología (1995), titular de una Habilitación (2009) y Director de Investigación de Primera Clase en el CNRS, en el equipo “Mondes pharaoniques” (Sorbonne Université). Sus principales áreas de investigación son la historia económica, social y administrativa de Egipto en el tercer y segundo milenio antes de Cristo y el análisis de su organización política. coeditor de la UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, editor-jefe de la revista “Journal of Egyptian History” (Brill), y responsable de las series “Cambridge Elements: Ancient Egypt in Context” (Cambridge University Press) y “Multidisciplinary Approaches to Ancient Societies (MAtAS)” (Oxbow Books, Oxford), entre sus publicaciones recientes destacan Power and Regions in Ancient States: An Egyptian and Mesoamerican Perspective (2022), From House Societies to States: Early Political Organization, from Antiquity to the Middle Ages (2022), Markets and Exchanges in Pre-modern and Traditional Societies (2021) y The State in Ancient Egypt: Power, Challenges and Dynamics (2019).


Abu Bakr, A.M. y Osing, J. (1973). Ächtungstexte aus dem Alten Reich. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, 29, p. 97–133.

Allam, S. (2019). Hieratischer Papyrus Bulaq 18. Selbstverlag des Herausgebers.

Allen, J.P. (2008). The historical inscription of Khnumhotep at Dahshur: Preliminary report. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 352, p. 29–39.

Anthes, R. (1930). Eine Polizeistrife des Mittleren Reiches in die westliche Oase. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 65, p. 108–114.

Bietak, M. (2010). The Early Bronze Age III temple at Tell Ibrahim Awad and its relevance to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. En: Hawass, Z., Der Manuelian, P. y Hussein, R.B. eds. Perspectives on Ancient Egypt. Studies in Honor of Edward Brovarski. American University in Cairo Press, pp. 65–77.

Biga, M. G. y Steinkeller, P. (2021). In search of Dugurasu. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 73, p. 9–70.

Boivin, N. (ed.) (2018). Globalization in Prehistory. Contact, Exchange, and the “People without History.” Cambridge University Press.

Boivin, N., y Fuller, D. (2009). Shell middens, ships and seeds: Exploring coastal subsistence, maritime trade and the dispersal of domesticates in and around the ancient Arabian Peninsula. Journal of World Prehistory, 22.2, p. 113–180.

Butterlin, P. (2014). De l’or, du lapis-lazuli et de la cornaline, le temple d’Ishtar à Mari, miroir du système monde sumérien? En: Cluzan, S., y Butterlin, P. eds. Voués à Ishtar. Syrie, janvier 1934, André Parrot découvre Mari. Institut Français du Proche-Orient, pp. 157–166.

Butterlin, P. (2018). Princes marchands d’Uruk? L’expansion urukéenne en question. En: Domenici, D. y Marchetti, N. eds. Urbanized Landscapes in Early Syro-Mesopotamia and Prehispanic Mesomerica. Papers of a Cross-Cultural Seminar Held in Honor of R. McCormick Adams. Harrassowitz, pp. 71–102.

Ciałowicz, K.M. (2017). New discoveries at Tell el-Farkha and the beginnings of the Egyptian state. Études et travaux, 30, p. 231–250.

Darnell, J.C. (2008). The Eleventh Dynasty royal inscription from Deir el-Ballas. Revue d’Égyptologie, 59, p. 81–110.

Diego Espinel, A. (2002). The role of the temple of Ba’alat Gebal as intermediary between Egypt and Byblos during the Old Kingdom. Studien zur altägyptischen Kultur, 30, p. 103–119.

Diego Espinel, A. (2015-2016). Bringing treasures and placing fears: Old Kingdom epithets and titles related to activities abroad. Isimu, 18-19, p. 103–146.

Dumitru, I.A. y Harrower, M.J. (2018). From rural collectables to global commodities: copper from Oman and obsidian from Ethiopia. En: Boivin, N. ed. Globalization in Prehistory. Contact, Exchange, and the “People without History.” Cambridge University Press, pp. 232–262.

Edel, E. (2008). Die Felsgräbernekropole der Qubbet el-Hawa bei Assuan. I. Abteilung, Band 2. Ferdinand Schöningh.

Ejsmond, W. (2017). The Nubian mercenaries of Gebelein during the First Intermediate Period in light of recent field research. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 14, p. 11–13.

Ejsmond, W. (2018). Gebelein in the Predynastic period: Capital or provincial centre? Review of evidence. En: Kabaciński, J., y Chłodnicki, M. eds. Desert and the Nile. Prehistory of the Nile Basin and the Sahara. Papers in honour of Fred Wendorf. Poznań Archaeological Museum, pp. 387–405.

Fiore Marochetti, E., Curti, A., Demichelis, S., Janot, F., Cesarani, F. y Grilletto, R. (2003). «Le paquet»: sépulture anonyme de la IVe dynastie provenant de Gébélein. Bulletin de L’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 103, p. 235–256.

Fischer, H.G. (2000). Egyptian Women of the Old Kingdom and of the Heracleopolitan Period. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Forster, F. (2015). Der Abu Ballas-Weg. Eine pharaonische Karawanenroute durch die Libysche Wüste. Heinrich-Barth-Institut.

Friedman, R. F. (1992). Pebbles, pots and petroglyphs: Excavations at HK64. En: Friedman, R.F. y Adams, B. ed. The Followers of Horus. Studies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman. Oxbow Books, pp. 99–106.

Friedman, R. F. (2000). Pots, pebbles and petroglyphs, part II: 1996 excavations at Hierakonpolis Locality HK64. En: Leahy, A. y Tait, J. ed. Studies in Ancient Egypt in Honour of H. S. Smith. Egypt Exploration Society, pp. 101–108.

Gatto, M.C. (2014). Cultural entanglement at the dawn of the Egyptian history: a view from the Nile First Cataract region. Origini, 36, p. 93–123.

Gatto, M.C. (2019). The later prehistory of Nubia in its interregional setting. En: Raue, D. ed. Handbook of Ancient Nubia. De Gruyter, pp. 259–291.

Gratien, B. (2022). Mirgissa VI: La ville hors les murs. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

Greenberg, R., e Iserlis, M. (2020). A note on First Dynasty Egypt, Tel Bet Yerah, and the origins of commodity exchange on the Levantine seaboard. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 27, p. 38–50.

Greenfield, H.J., Greenfield, T.L., Arnold, E., Shai, I., Albaz, S. y Maeir, A.M. (2020). Evidence for movement of goods and animals from Egypt to Canaan during the Early Bronze of the Southern Levant: A view from Tell es-Ṣâfi/Gath. Ägypten und Levante, 30, p. 377–397.

Hassan, Kh. (2016). An 18th Dynasty wooden board in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo JE 95750-CG 25366. Egyptian Journal of Archaeological and Restoration Studies, 6.2, p. 125-132.

Ialongo, N., Hermann, R., y Rahmstorf, L. (2021). Bronze Age weight systems as a measure of market integration in Western Eurasia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118.27, p. 1–9.

Jones, D. (2000). An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and Phrases of the Old Kingdom. Archaeopress.

Kansa, E. C., Whitcher Kansa, S., y Levy, T. E. (2006). Eat like an Egyptian? — A contextual approach to an Early Bronze Age I “Egyptian colony” in the Southern Levant. En: Malty, M. ed. Integrating Zooarchaeology: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology; Durham, August 2002. Oxbow Books, pp. 76–91.

Kitchen, K.A. (1989). Ramesside Inscriptions Historical and Biographical. Vol. VII: Addenda and Indexes. Blackwell.

Kraemer, B. y Liszka, K. (2016). Evidence for administration of the Nubian fortresses in the Late Middle Kingdom: The Semna dispatches. Journal of Egyptian History, 9, p. 1–65.

Lankester, F. (2013). Desert Boats. Predynastic and Pharaonic Era Rock-Art in Egypt’s Central Eastern Desert: Distribution, Dating and Interpretation. BAR Publishing.

Manzo, A. (2022). Ancient Egypt in Its African Context. Cambridge University Press.

Marcolin, M. (2022). An Elusive Biographic Fragment of Iny. En: Kawai, N. y Davies, B.G. eds. The Star Who Appears in Thebes: Studies in Honour of Jiro Kondo. Abercromby Press, pp. 267–291.

Marcolin, M. y Diego Espinel, A. (2011). The Sixth Dynasty biographic inscriptions of Iny: more pieces to the puzzle. En: Bárta, M., Coppens, F. y Krejčí, J. eds. Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2010. Charles University Prague, pp. 570-615.

Matić, U. (2014). “Nubian” archers in Avaris: A study of culture historical reasoning in archaeology of Egypt. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology, n. s. 9, p. 697–712.

Meyer, C. (2010). The Kingdom of Kush in the 4th Cataract: archaeological salvage of the Oriental Institute Nubian Expedition 2007 season. Part II: grinding stones and gold mining at Hosh el-Guruf, Sudan. Gdańsk Archaeological Museum and Heritage Protection Fund African Reports, 7, p. 39–52.

Minor, E. (2018). Decolonizing Reisner: A case study of a Classic Kerma female burial for reinterpreting early nubian archaeological collections through digital archival resources. En: Honegger, M. ed. Nubian Archaeology in the XXIst Century. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference for Nubian Studies, Neuchâtel, 1st-6th September 2014. Peeters, pp. 251‒262.

Moreno García, J.C. (1997). Administration territoriale et organisation de l’espace en Égypte au troisième millénaire avant J.-C. (II): swnw. Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 124, p. 116–130.

Moreno García, J.C. (2017). Trade and power in ancient Egypt: Middle Egypt in the late third/early second millennium BC. Journal of Archaeological Research, 25, p. 87–132.

Moreno García, J.C. (2018). Divergent trajectories on the Nile: Polities, wealth and power between 4000-1600 BCE. En: Meller, H., Risch, R., y Gronenborn, D. eds. Surplus without State—Political forms in Prehistory. Proceedings of the 10th Archaeological Congress of Central Germany. Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte Halle (Saale), pp. 337–372.

Moreno García, J.C. (2021). Markets, transactions and ancient Egypt: new venues of research in a comparative perspective. En: Moreno García, J.C., ed. Markets and transactions in pre-modern and traditional societies. Oxbow Books, pp. 189–229.

Nicolle, Ch. (2009). Aux marges du Levant-Sud. Quelques considérations sur l’expansion “égyptienne” dans la seconde moitié du IVe millénaire. En: Durand, J.-M., y Jacquet, A. ed. Centre et périphérie: Approches nouvelles des orientalistes. Éditions Jean Maisonneuve, pp. 29–46.

Nigro, L. (2014). The copper route and the Egyptian connection in 3rd millennium BC Jordan seen from the caravan city of Khirbet al-Batrawy. Vicino Oriente, 18, p. 39–64.

Nigro, L. et alii (2020). An Egyptian green schist palette ad an amazonite gemstone from the “Palace of the Copper Axes” at Batrawy, Jordan. Vicino Oriente, 24, p.1–26.

Obsomer, Cl. (1995). Sésostris Ier. Étude chronologique et historique du règne. Connaissance de l’Égypte ancienne.

Osing, J. (1976). Ächtungstexte aus dem Alten Reich (II). Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, 32, p. 133–185.

Parrot, A. (1967). Mission archéologique de Mari. Volume 3: Les temples d’Ishtarat et de Nini-Zaza. Geuthner.

Pätznick, J.-P. (2005). Die Siegelabrollungen und Rollsiegel der Stadt Elephantine im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Archaeopress.

Posener, G. (1987). Cinq figurines d’envoûtement. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

Posener-Krieger, P. (1994). Le coffret de Gebelein. In: Berger, C., Clerc, G. and Grimal, N. eds. Hommages a Jean Leclant. Vol. 1: Études pharaoniques. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, pp. 315–326.

Quenet, Ph. (2008). Les échanges du nord de la Mésopotamie avec ses voisins proche-orientaux au IIIe millénaire (ca 3100-2300 av. J.-C.). Brepols.

Quibell, J.E. (1913). Excavations at Saqqara (1911-12). The Tomb of Hesy. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale.

Rahmstorf, L. (2016). From ‘value ascription’ to coinage: a sketch of monetary developments in Western Eurasia from the Stone to the Iron Age. En: Haselgrove, C. and Krmnicek, S. eds. The Archaeology of Money. Proceedings of the Workshop ‘Archaeology of Money’, University of Tübingen, October 2013. Oxbow Books, pp. 19–42.

Ritner, R.K. (2009): The Libyan Anarchy; Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period. Society of Biblical Literature.

Rowe, A. (1939). Three new stelae from the South-Eastern Desert. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte, 39, p. 187–194, plates xxv-xxvi.

Schneider, A.W., Gill, E.C., Rajagopalan, B., y Algaze, G. (2021). A trade-friendly environment?: Newly reconstructed Indian summer monsoon wind stress curl data for the third millennium BCE and their potential implications concerning the development of Early Bronze Age trans-Arabian sea maritime trade. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 16, p. 395–411.

Selz, G. (2020). The Uruk Phenomenon. En: Radner, K., Moeller, N., y Potts, D.T. eds. The Oxford History of the Ancient Near East. Volume 1: From the Beginnings to Old Kingdom Egypt and the Dynasty of Akkad. Oxford University Press, pp. 163–244.

Servajean, F. (2017). Les radeaux de Pount. ENIM-Égypte Nilotique et Méditerranéenne, 10, p. 103–115.

Sethe, K. (1933). Urkunden des Ägyptischen Altertums. Band I: Urkunden des Alten Reichs. J.C. Heinrichs.

Sethe, K. (1927). Urkunden des Ägyptischen Altertums. Band IV: Urkunden der 18. Dynastie. J.C. Heinrichs.

Somaglino, Cl. y Tallet, P. (2014). Une campagne en Nubie sous la Ire dynastie. La scène nagadienne du Gebel Sheikh Suleiman comme prototype et modèle. Nehet, 1, p. 1–46.

Strudwick, N. (2005). Texts from the Pyramid Age. Society of Biblical Literature.

Tallet, P. (2017). Du pain et des céréales pour les équipes royales: le grand papyrus comptable du ouadi el-Jarf (papyrus H). Néhet, 5, p. 99–117.

Tallet, P. (2019). Des nains, des étoffes et des bijoux. Le papyrus de Nefer-irou au ouadi el-Jarf. En: Vuilleumier, S. and Meyrat, P. eds. Sur les pistes du désert: Mélanges offerts à Michel Valloggia. Infolio, pp. 217–226.

Tassie, G.J. (2018). The Sinai connection from 10,000 to 2,000 BC. En: De Trafford, A., Tassie, G.J., el Daly, O., y Van Wetering, J. eds. A River Runs Through It: Studies in honour of Professor Fekri A. Hassan on the occasion of His 75th birthday. Vol. 1. Golden House Publications, pp. 133–178.

Van Neer, W. et alii (2004). Fish remains from archaeological sites as indicators of former trade connections in the Eastern Mediterranean. Paleorient, 30, p. 101–147.

Wegner, J. (2017-2018). The stela of Idudju-Iker, Foremost-one of the Chiefs of Wawat. New evidence on the conquest of Thinis under Wahankh Antef II. Revue d'Égyptologie, 68, p. 153–209.

Wilkinson, T. C. (2014). Tying the Threads of Eurasia. Trans-Regional Routes and Material Flows in Transcaucasia, Eastern Anatolia and Western Central Asia, c. 3000-1500 BC. Sidestone Press.

Žába, Z. (1974). The Rock Inscriptions of Lower Nubia, Czechoslovak Concession. Charles University of Prague.




Como Citar

Moreno García, J. C. (2022). Egipto, Africa Nororiental y Oriente Medio durante la Edad del Bronce Temprano: Geopolítica e Intercambios. Mare Nostrum, 13(1), 9-36.