Analysis of stress and coping in relatives of patients admitted to the ICU

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e3204

Keywords:

Intensive care units, Stress, Coping behavior, Caregivers

Abstract

Admissions in ICUs are potentially adverse events that present significant challenges to the patients’s relatives. This study aimed to describe the stressful events and coping strategies adopted by relatives of patients admitted to the ICU. In total, 35 individuals participated and answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Environmental Stressor Questionnaire (ESQ), and the brief inventory of coping (Brief-COPE), and 10 were interviewed. Results showed that the most stressful events include difficulties in communication with the team, and coping focused on problem and emotion were the most used. The data showed associations between ESQ scores and coping strategies. Among the participants, two groups were found, a cluster of individuals with more adaptive strategies and another cluster with less beneficial behaviors, which differed in terms of the coping and content presented in the interviews. Relatives indicated religiosity, patience, and resignation as more adaptative coping strategies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Izabela Pinheiro, Universidade de Brasília

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil.

Marina Kohlsdorf, Centro Universitário de Brasília

Centro Universitário de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil.

Amalia Raquel Pérez-Nebra, Universidade de Brasília

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil.

References

Bardin, L. (1977). Análise de conteúdo [Content analysis] (L. A. Reto, Trans.). Lisboa, Portugal: Edições 70.

Beehr, T. A. (2019). Interventions in occupational health psychology. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(1), 1-3. doi:10.1037/ocp0000140

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267

Cornock, M. A. (1998). Stress and the intensive care patient: Perceptions of patients and nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(3), 518-527. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00555.x

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2010). Choosing a mixed methods design. In J. W. Creswell & V. L. P. Clark (Eds.), Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed., pp. 53-106). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dallalana, T. M., & Batista, M. G. R. (2014). Qualidade de vida do cuidador durante internação da pessoa cuidada em Unidade de Urgência/Emergência: Alguns fatores associados [Quality of life of caregivers during the hospitalization of the patient under care in an Emergency Unit: Some associated factors]. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 19(11), 4587-4594. doi:10.1590/1413-812320141911.16592013

Fetsch, C. F. M., Portella, M. P., Kirchner, R. M., Gomes, J. S., Benetti, E. R. R., & Stumm, E. M. F. (2016). Estratégias de coping entre familiares de pacientes oncológicos [Coping strategies among oncological patients’ family members]. Revista Brasileira de Cancerologia, 62(1), 17-25. doi:10.32635/2176-9745.RBC.2016v62n1.175

Gil-Juliá, B., Ballester-Arnal, R., Bernat-Adell, M. D., Giménez-Garcia, C., & Castro-Calvo, J. (2018). Valoración de la estancia en UCI desde el punto de vista de pacientes y familiares [Assessment of the ICU stay from the point of view of patients and their relatives]. Revista Española de Salud Publica, 92, e1-e13. Retrieved from http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1135-57272018000100407&lng=es&tlng=es

Gonçalves, L. O., Ferreira, C. B., Zanini, D. S., Vasconcelos, C. L. B., & Gonçalves, S. S. S. (2015). Coping em pacientes crônicos, cuidadores e profissionais de saúde [Coping in chronic patients, caregivers and health professionals]. Revista da SPAGESP, 16(1), 107-121. Retrieved from http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1677-29702015000100009&lng=pt&tlng=pt

Gonçalves-Câmara, S., Carlotto, M. S., & Bedin, L. M. (2019). Validity evidences of the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (COPE) reduced version with Brazilian workers. Psicogente, 22(41), 33-50. doi:10.17081/psico.22.41.3301

González-Escobar, D. S., Álvarez-Yañez, D. M., & Sánchez-Palencia, C. P. (2014). Inventario de necesidades de los familiares de los pacientes ingresados de la unidad de cuidado intensivo [Inventory of needs of families of patients discharged from the intensive care unit]. Revista Ciencia e Cuidado, 11(2), 46-48. doi:10.22463/17949831.197

Lana, L. D., Mittmann, P. S., Moszkowicz, C. I., & Pereira, C. C. (2018). Los factores estresantes en pacientes adultos internados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: Una revisión integradora [The stressors factors in adult patients interned to an intensive care unit]. Enfermería Global, 17(4), 580-611. doi:10.6018/eglobal.17.4.307301

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.

Lopes, C. R., Iepsen, L. B., & Costa, J. B. (2020). Avaliação psicológica de pacientes após a alta da unidade de terapia intensiva [Psychological evaluation of patients after discharge from the intensive care unit]. Psico, 51(2), e33640. doi:10.15448/1980-8623.2020.2.33640

Magalhães, F. M. N. M., Jesus, S. A., Gois, C. F. L., Lapa-Rodrígues, E. O., Santos, V., Marques, D. R. S., ... Resende, G. G. S. (2014). Avaliação dos estressores para o paciente em uma unidade de terapia intensiva cardiológica [Evaluation of stressors to the patient in a cardiology intensive care unit]. Enfermagem em Foco, 5(1/2), 8-12. doi:10.21675/2357-707X.2014.v5.n1/2.596

Martínez-Villamea, S., Alonso-Rodríguez, A., Sánchez-Vallejo, A., & Gallego-Lorenzo, J. (2019). Estilos de afrontamiento de los familiares de pacientes ingresados en una unidad de cuidados internsivos: Una revisión sistemática [Styles of confrontation of family members of patients enrolled in an international care unit: A systematic review]. Tiempos de Enfermería y Salud, 2(6), 22-29. Retrieved from https://tiemposdeenfermeriaysalud.es/journal/article/view/29

Nogueira, J. J. Q., Ferreira, J. A., Albuquerque, A. M., & Agra, G. A. (2017). Aggravating and mitigating factors to death perception in the ICU: A vision of patients. Revista de Pesquisa: Cuidado é Fundamental Online, 9(1), 51-56. doi:10.9789/2175-5361.2017.v9i1.51-56

Pessini, L. (2016). Vida e morte na UTI: A ética no fio da navalha [Life and death in the ICU: Ethics on the razor’s edge]. Revista Bioética, 24(1), 54-63. doi:10.1590/1983-80422016241106

Puggina, A. C., Ienne, A., Carbonari, K. F. B. S. F., Parejo, L. S., Sapatini, T. F., & Silva, M. J. P. (2014). Perception of communication, satisfaction and importance of family needs in the Intensive Care Unit. Escola Anna Nery, 18(2), 277-283. doi:10.5935/1414-8145.20140040

Reis, L. C. C., Gabarra, L. M., & More, C. L. O. O. (2016). Los efectos del proceso de hospitalización en UCI adulto en la perspectiva de la familia [The repercussions of the hospitalization process in adult ICU in family perspective]. Temas em Psicologia, 24(3), 815-828. doi:10.9788/TP2016.3-03

Rosa, B. A., Rodrigues, R. C. M., Gallani, M. C. B. J., Spana, T. M., & Pereira, C. G. S. (2010). Stressors at the intensive care unit: The Brazilian version of the Environmental Stressor Questionnaire. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 44(3), 623-630. doi:10.1590/S0080-62342010000300011

Selye, H. (1985). History and present status of the stress concept. In A. Monat & R. S. Lazarus (Eds.), Stress and coping: An anthology (2nd ed., pp. 17-29). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Silva, V. A., Menezes, M. B., Alves, B. M., Amaral, J. B., & Poveda, M. A. M. (2019). Estresse pós-traumático decorrente da hospitalização em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: Memórias de idosos [Post-traumatic stress resulting from hospitalization in the Intensive Care Unit: Memories of the elderly]. Ética de los Cuidados, (12), 73-79.

Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(2), 597-605. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.03.014

Downloads

Published

2022-06-01

How to Cite

Pinheiro, I., Kohlsdorf, M., & Pérez-Nebra, A. R. (2022). Analysis of stress and coping in relatives of patients admitted to the ICU. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 32, e3204. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e3204

Issue

Section

Psychological Evaluation