Muscidae (Diptera) of medico-legal importance associated with ephemeral organic substrates in seasonally dry tropical forests
Keywords:Atherigona orientalis, Caatinga, Carrion, Forensic entomology, Synthesiomyia nudiseta.
AbstractMuscidae (Diptera) comprises one of the most important taxa in medical, veterinary and forensic entomology, especially due to their association with decomposing carcasses and cadavers. Yet, knowledge on their distribution and behaviour is still incipient in several biomes, which is the case of dry tropical forests. This study aimed to evaluate the attractiveness of different organic substrates to species of Muscidae in areas of seasonally dry forests (Caatinga) in Northern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in five Caatinga areas between 2015 and 2017, using suspended traps baited with bovine spleen, fish or human faeces. When all samplings were combined, 3,176 adults of nine species were collected. The assemblages of muscids had higher richness and abundances on bovine spleen, which attracted 66% of all specimens, when compared to the other substrates. Musca domestica was the most abundant species, and it was dominant in assemblages associated with spleen and fish. Assemblages attracted to spleen and fish had higher similarity, differing from those associated with faeces. Differences in food attractiveness are presented for species of medical interest as pathogen vectors (e.g., Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883)) and of forensic relevance as colonizers of human corpses (e.g., Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830)).
Barbosa, R.R.; Mello-Patiu, C.A.; Mello, R.P. & Queiroz, M.M.C. 2009. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 104: 923‑926.
Barbosa, T.M. & Vasconcelos, S.D. 2015. An updated checklist of myiasis-inducing Diptera species in livestock in Northeastern Brazil. Archivos de Zootecnia, 64: 187‑190.
Blackith, R.E. & Blackith, R.M. 1993. Differential attraction of calyptrate flies (Diptera) to faeces, Journal of Natural History, 27: 645‑655.
Bullock, S.H.; Mooney, H.A. & Medina, E. 1995. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 450p.
Carmo, R.F.R.; Oliveira, D.L.; Barbosa, T.M.; Soares, T.F.; Souza, J.R.B. & Vasconcelos, S.D. 2017. Visitors versus colonizers: An empirical study on the use of vertebrate carcasses by necrophagous Diptera in a rainforest fragment. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 110: 492‑500.
Carvalho, C.J.B. 2002. Muscidae (Diptera) of the Neotropical Region: Taxonomy. Curitiba, Editora Universidade Federal do Paraná. 287p.
Couri, M.S.; Cunha, A.M.; Souza, S.M.F.M. & Laeta, M. 2009. Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Muscidae) found inside the esophagus of a mummy in Lisbon (Portugal). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 46: 87‑91.
D’Almeida, J.M. & Almeida, J.R. 1998. Nichos tróficos em dípteros caliptrados, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 58: 563‑570.
Greenberg, B. 1971. Flies and Disease Vol. I, Ecology, Classification, and Biotic Association. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press. 586p.
Grzywacz, A.; Hall, M.J.R.; Pape, T. & Szpila K. 2017. Muscidae (Diptera) of forensic importance an identification key to third instar larvae of the western Palaearctic region and a catalogue of the muscid carrion community. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 131: 855‑866.
Marques, B. & Couri, M. 2007. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 51: 436‑444.
Miles, L.; Newton, A.C.; Defries, R.S.; Ravilious, C.; May, I.; Blyth, S.; Kapos, V. & Gordon, J.E. 2006. A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forests. Journal of Biogeography, 33: 491‑505.
Mulieri, P.R.; Patitucci, L.D. & Olea, M.S. 2015. Sex-biased patterns of saprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) collected with different baits of animal origin. Journal of Medical Entomology, 52: 386‑393.
Santos, J.C.; Leal, I.R.; Almeida-Cortez, J.S.; Fernandes, G.W. & Tabarelli, M. 2011.Caatinga: the scientific negligence experienced by a dry tropical forest. Tropical Conservation Science, 4: 276‑286.
Savage, J. 2002. Exploring the diversity of flies (Diptera). Cleaning up the world: Dipteran decomposers. Biodiversity, 3: 12‑15.
Skidmore, P. 1985. The Biology of the Muscidae of World. Dordrecht, W. Junk Publishers. xiv+550p.
Uribe‑M., N.; Wolff, M. & Carvalho, C.J.B. 2010. Synanthropy and ecological aspects of Muscidae (Diptera) in a tropical dry forest ecosystem in Colombia. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 54: 462‑470.
Vasconcelos, S.D. & Araujo, M. 2012. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in Northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the forensic entomologist. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56: 7‑14.
Vasconcelos, S.D.; Barbosa, T.M. & Oliveira, T.P.B. 2015. Diversity of forensically-important dipteran species in different environments in Northeastern Brazil, with notes on the attractiveness of animal baits. The Florida Entomologist, 98: 770‑775.
Vasconcelos, S.D.; Costa, D.L. & Oliveira, D.L. 2017. Entomological evidence in a case of a suicide victim by hanging: first collaboration between entomologist and forensic police in northeastern Brazil. Australian Journal of Forensic Science. http://doi.org/10.1080/00450618.2017.1356870
Vasconcelos, S.D.; Salgado, R.L.; Barbosa, T.M. & Souza, J.R.B. 2016. Diptera of medico-legal importance associated with pig carrion in a tropical dry forest. Journal of Medical Entomology, 53: 1131‑1139.
How to Cite
Responsibility: The scientific content and the opinions expressed in the manuscript are the sole responsibility of the author(s).
Copyrights: Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia. The journal is licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-type CC-BY.