Unveiling the trap-nesting bees and wasps’ fauna (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) and associated organisms of the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Authors

  • Diego Marinho Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Museu Nacional (MN), Departamento de Entomologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia - Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5319-0432
  • Felipe Vivallo Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Museu Nacional (MN), Departamento de Entomologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia - Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4487-0804

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2020.60.49

Keywords:

Atlantic Forest, Insects, Parasitoid, Pollinator, Urban ecosystem

Abstract

Urban areas, as cities, are frequently overlooked as refuges for the native fauna. However, these places may support several species and house relevant biodiversity contributing to important ecosystemic functions. Wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) are important faunistic elements acting as predators/parasitoids and pollinators, respectively. Therefore, they must be surveyed and inventoried for conservation purposes, especially in cities located in the Atlantic Forest domain, a ravaged Brazilian biome. Accordingly, this study presents a species list of trap-nesting bees and wasps that occurs at the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. The survey was conducted using the trap-nest method. Three types of trap-nests were offered totalizing 1,038 traps: rubber hose, bamboo cane and plastic straw. The plastic straw traps were the most effective followed by the bamboo cane ones at attracting nesting wasps and bees. Between April/2017 and February/2019, 12 foundress species built nests: Tetrapedia curvitarsis (Apidae) (33 nests), Hylaeus sp. (Colletidae) (6), Auplopus cf. rufipes (Pompilidae) (5), Trypoxylon sp. (Crabronidae) (4), Pachodynerus nasidens (Vespidae) (3), Auplopus cf. brasiliensis (Pompilidae), Megachile benigna and Megachile sp. (Megachilidae), Euglossa pleosticta, Euglossa sp., and Eufriesea sp. (Apidae) and Penepodium sp. (Sphecidae) all with one nest. Also, four natural enemies were recorded: Chaenotetrastichus neotropicalis (Eulophidae), Gasteruption brachychaetum (Gasterupteiidae), Caenochrysis crotonis (Chrysididae) and Amobia sp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Most bee nests were restrained to the matrix forest and nearby areas, whereas wasps built their nests predominantly in open areas. Regarding seasonality, bees tended to nest in the summer and early autumn influenced by mean temperature, in contrast of wasps that nested in late autumn, winter and spring, influenced by pluviosity. Besides many rare species, which suggests environmental disturbance, the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro showed a fairly diverse fauna and shows how forest fragment in cities may harbour important representatives of the native fauna.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Diego Marinho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Museu Nacional (MN), Departamento de Entomologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia - Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Quinta da Boa Vista, s/nº, São Cristóvão, CEP 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Felipe Vivallo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Museu Nacional (MN), Departamento de Entomologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia - Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Quinta da Boa Vista, s/nº, São Cristóvão, CEP 20940-040, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

References

Aguiar, W.M. & Gaglianone, M.C. 2011. Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera Apidae Euglossina) on an inselberg in the Atlantic Forest domain of Southeastern Brazil. Tropical Zoology, 24: 107-125.

Aguiar, W.M. & Gaglianone, M.C. 2012. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56: 210-219. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000018

Aguiar, W.M.; Melo, G.A.R. & Gaglianone, M.C. 2014. Does forest physiognomy affect the structure of orchid bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini) communities? A study in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sociobiology, 61: 68-77. http://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v61i1.68-77

Alves-dos-Santos, I. 2003. Trap-nesting bees and wasps on the University Campus in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 76: 328-334.

Anteparra, M.; Ruiz, S.; Granando, L. & Días, W. 2012. Entomofauna asociada con la cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) en Tingo María, Huánuco. Investigación y Amazonía, 2: 51-59.

Barthélémy, C. 2012. Nest trapping, a simple method for gathering information on life histories of solitary bees and wasps. Bionomics of 21 species of solitary aculeate in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Entomological Society, 4(1): 3-37.

Batra, S.W. 1984. Solitary Bees. Scientific American, 250(2): 120-127.

Bediaga, B. 2007. Conciliar o útil ao agradável e fazer ciência: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro – 1808-1860. História, Ciência e Saúde – Manguinhos, 14: 1131-1157. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-59702007000400003

Budrys, E.; Andreu-Ureta, A.; Briliütè, A.; Cetkovic, A.; Heinrich, S.; Kroel-Dulay, G.; Moora, M.; Potts, S.G.; Rortais, A.; Sjödin, E.; Szentgyörgyi, H.; Torres, I.; Vighi, M.; Westphal, C. & Budrienè, A. 2010. Cavity-nesting Hymenoptera across Europe: a study in ALARM project field site network sites using small trap-nests on trees and buildings. In: Settele, J.; Penev, L.; Georgiev, T.; Grabaum, R.; Grobelnik, V.; Hammen, V.; Klotz, S.; Kotarac, M. & Kuhn, I. Atlas of biodiversity risk. Sofia, Pensoft Publishers. p. 172-174.

Buys, S.C. 2009. Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Rio de Janeiro State (Southeastern Brazil): inventory of species and notes on biology and distribution. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 67(3-4): 275-282.

Cardoso, M.C. & Gonçalves, R.B. 2018. Reduction by half: the impact on bees of 34 years of urbanization. Urban Ecosystems, 21(5): 943-49. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-018-0773-7

Cobb, M.; Watkins, K.; Silva, E.N.; Nascimento, I.C. & Charles-Delabie, J.H. 2006. An exploratory study on the use of bamboo pieces for trapping. Sociobiology, 47(1): 215-223.

Colombo, A.F. & Joly, C.A. 2010. Brazilian Atlantic Forest Lato Sensu: The Most Ancient Brazilian Forest, and a Biodiversity Hotspot, is Highly Threatened by Climate Change. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 70(3): 697-708. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842010000400002

Costa, C.C.F. & Gonçalves, R.B. 2019. What do we know about Neotropical trap-nesting bees? Synopsis about their nest biology and taxonomy. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo, 59(26): e20195926. http://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2019.59.26

Dreisbach, R.R. 1963. New species of spider wasps, genus Auplopus, from the Americas South of the United States (Hymenoptera: Psammocharidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 114: 161-173.

Flores, L.M.A.; Zanette, L.R.S. & Araujo, F.S. 2017. Effects of habitat simplification on assemblages of cavity nesting bees and wasps in a semiarid neotropical conservation area. Biodiversity Conservation, 27(2): 311-328. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-017-1436-3

Freitas, M.F. & Carrijo, T.T. 2016. A família Myrsinaceae nos contrafortes do Maciço da Tijuca e entorno do Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rodriguésia, 59(4): 813-828.

Gaglianone, M.C.; Aguiar, A.J.C.; Vivallo, F. & Alves-dos-Santos, I. 2011. Checklist Das abelhas coletoras de óleos do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 11: 657-666. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032011000500030

Garcia, M.V.B. & Adis, J. 1993. On the biology of Penepodium goryanum (Lepeletier) in wooden trap-nests (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae). Proceeding of the Entomological Society of Washington, 95(4): 547-553.

Gathmann, A. & Tscharntke, T. 2002. Foraging ranges of solitary bees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71(5): 757-764.

Gazola, A.L. & Garófalo, C.A. 2009. Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Forest Fragments of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Research, 8(2): 607-622. http://doi.org/10.4238/vol8-2kerr016

Guimarães-Brasil, M.O.; Brasil, D.F.; Pacheco-Filho, A.J.S.; Silva, C.I. & Freitas, B.M. 2020. Trap nest preference of solitary bees in fragments of the Baturité massif, Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 92(Supl. 1): e20180558. http://doi.org/10.1590/0001-376520202018055

Hall, D.M.; Camilo, G.R.; Tonietto, R.K.; Ollerton, J.; Ahrné, K.; Arduser, M.; Ascher, J.S.; Baldock, K.C.R.; Fowler, R.; Frankie, G.; Goulson, D.; Gunnarsson, B.; Hanley, M.E.; Jackson, J.I.; Langellotto, G.; Lowenstein, D.; Minor, E.S.; Philpott, S.M.; Potts, S.G.; Sirohi, M.H.; Spevak, E.M.; Stone, G.N. & Caragh, G.T. 2017. The city as a refuge for insect pollinators. Conservation Biology, 31: 24-29.

Hanson, P.E. & Gauld, I.D. 2006. Hymenoptera de La Región Neotropical. Gainesville, American Entomological Institute.

Hernandez, J.L.; Frankie, G.W. & Thorp, R.W. 2009. Ecology of urban bees: a review of current knowledge and directions for future study. Cities and the Environment, 2: 1-15.

Hofmann, M.M.; Fleischmann, A. & Renner, S.S. 2018. Changes in the bee fauna of a German Botanical Garden between 1997 and 2017, attributable to climate warming, not other parameters. Oecologia, 187: 701-706.

Jacobson, A.P.; Riggio, J.; Tait, A.M. & Baillie, J.E. 2019. Global areas of low human impact (‘Low Impact Areas’) and fragmentation of the natural world. Scientific Reports, 9(1): 1-13. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50558-6

Krombein, K.V. 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees: life histories, nests and associates. Washington, Smithsonian Press.

Krug, C. & Alves-dos-Santos, I. 2008. O uso de diferentes métodos para amostragem da fauna de abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), um estudo em floresta ombrófila mista em Santa Catarina. Neotropical Entomology, 37: 265-78. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2008000300005

LaSalle, J. 1994. North American genera of Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Natural History, 28(1): 109-236.

Loyola, R.D. & Martins, R.P. 2006. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban Remanent. Neotropical Entomology, 35: 41-48. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2006000100006

Loyola, R.D. & Martins, R.P. 2008. Habitat structure components are effective predictors of trap-nesting Hymenoptera diversity. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9(6): 735-742. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2007.06.016

Macedo, A.C.C. 2011. A revision of Gasteruption Latreille Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae in the Neotropical Region. Zootaxa, 3030: 1-62.

Macedo, A.C.C.; Cordeiro, G.D. & Alves-dos-Santos, I. 2012. Entering behavior of Gasteruption brachychaetum Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) into a nest of Hylaeus Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 56(3): 325-338. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262012005000049

MacIvor, J.S. 2017. Cavity-nest boxes for solitary bees: a century of design and research. Apidologie, 48(3): 311-327. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-016-0477-z

Magurran, A.E. 2013. Measuring biological diversity. Curitiba, Editora da UFPR.

Marinho, D.; Costa, V. & Vivallo, F. 2019. First record and new species of the parasitoid wasp Chaenotetrastichus Graham (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for the Neotropical Region, with notes on its biology and a key for the species of the genus. Zootaxa, 4604: 359-368.

Martins, A.C.; Gonçalves, R.B. & Melo, G.A.R. 2013. Changes in wild bee fauna of a grassland in brazil reveal negative effects associated with growing urbanization during the last 40 years. Zoologia, 30: 157-176. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702013000200006

Matos, M.C.B.; Silva, S.S. & Teodoro, A.V. 2016. Seasonal population abundance of the assembly of solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera) according to land-use in Maranhão state, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 60: 171-176. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbe.2016.02.001

Menke, A.S. & Fernández, F. 1996. Claves ilustradas para las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de esfécidos neotropicales (Apoidea: Sphecidae). Illustrated clues for subfamilies, tribes, and genera of Neotropical Spheciade (Apoidea: Sphecidae). Revista de Biología Tropical, San José, 44: 1-68.

Michener, C.D. 2007. The Bees of the World. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Mitchell, T.B. 1930. A contribution to the knowledge of Neotropical Megachile with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 56: 155-306.

Moradeshaghi, M.J. & Bohart, G.E. 1968. The biology of Euphytomima nomiivora (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a parasite of the alkali bee, Nomia melanderi (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 41: 456-473.

Morato, E.F. & Martins, R.P. 2006. An overview of proximate factors affecting the nesting behavior of solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in preexisting cavities in wood. Neotropical Entomology, Curitiba, 35(3): 285-298. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2006000300001

Moure, J.S. 1943. Notas sobre abêlhas da coleção Zikán (Hym. Apoidea). Revista de Entomologia, 14: 447-484.

Moure, J.S. 1944. Notas sobre abêlhas da coleção ZIkán. II. (Hym. Apoidea). Revista de Entomologia, 15: 273-291.

Moure, J.S. 1958. On the Bee Genus Cyphomelissa (Hymen., Apoidea). Entomological News, 69: 191-94.

Moure, J.S. 2012. Tetrapediini Michener & Moure, 1957. In: Moure, J.S.; Urban, D. & Melo, G.A.R. Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region – online version. Available at: http://www.moure.cria.org.br/catalogue. Access in: 08/07/2020.

Moure, J.S.; Melo, G.A.R. & DalMolin, A. 2012a. Megachilini Latreille, 1802. In: Moure, J.S.; Urban, D. & Melo, G.A.R. Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region – online version. Available at: http://www.moure.cria.org.br/catalogue. Access in: 08/07/2020.

Moure, J.S.; Melo, G.A.R. & Faria-Jr., L.R.R. 2012b. Euglossini Latreille, 1802. In: Moure, J.S.; Urban, D. & Melo, G.A.R. Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region – online version. Available at: http://www.moure.cria.org.br/catalogue. Access in: 08/07/2020.

Myers, N.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Mittermeier, C.G.; Fonseca, G.A.B. & Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772): 853-858. http://doi.org/10.1038/35002501

Nascimento, A.L. & Garófalo, C.A. 2014. Trap-nesting solitary wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in an insular landscape: mortality rates for immatures wasps, parasitism, and sex ratios. Sociobiology, 61(2): 207-217. http://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v61i2.207-217

Nemésio, A. 2009. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Zootaxa, 2041: 1-242.

O’Neill, K.M. 2001. Solitary wasps: behavior and natural history. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

Obrecht, E. & Huber, C. 1993. Ducke type specimens and other Brazilian insect types in the Emilio A. Goeldi collection in the Natural History Museum Bern (Switzerland). An annotated catalogue. Jahrbuch des Naturhistorischen Museums Bern, 11: 163-184.

Oliveira, P.S. & Gonçalves, R.B. 2017. Trap-nesting bees and wasps (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment, Southern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo, 57(13): 149-156. http://doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.13

Perioto, N.W. & Lara, R.I.R. 2018. Nest description, new parasitoid associations and geographical range of Trypoxylon (Trypoxylon) florale Richards (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 44: 297-302.

Pinheiro-Machado, C.; Alves-dos-Santos, I.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L.; Kleinert, A.M.P. & Silveira, F.A. 2002. Brazilian bee surveys: state of knowledge, conservation and sustainable use. In: Kevan, P. & Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L. Pollinating Bees: the conservation link between agriculture and nature. The Conservation Link Between Agriculture and Nature. Brasília, Ministry of Environment. p. 115-129.

Prado, S.G.; Ngo, H.T.; Florez, J.A. & Collazo, J.A. 2017. Sampling bees in tropical forests and agroecosystems: a review. Journal of Insect Conservation, 21: 753-770. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-017-0018-8

R Core Team. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at: https://www.R-project.org. Access in: 08/07/2020.

Ramalho, A.V.; Gaglianone, M.C. & Oliveira, M.L. 2009. Comunidades de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 53(1): 95-101. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0085-56262009000100022

Rangel, C.H. & Neiva, C.H.M.B. 2013. Predação de vertebrados por cães Canis lupus familiaris (Mammalia: Carnivora) no Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Biodiversidade Brasileira, 3(2): 261-269.

Rasmussen, C. & Asenjo, A. 2009. A checklist to the wasps of Peru (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). ZooKeys, 15(special issue): 1-78. http://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.15.196

Rebêlo, J.M.M. 2001. As abelhas das orquídeas. São Luís, Lithograf Editora.

Rebêlo, J.M.M. & Moure, J.S. 1995. As espécies de Euglossa Latreille do Nordeste de São Paulo (Apidae, Euglossinae). Revista Brasileira de Zooogia, 12(3): 445-466. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81751995000300001

Rezende, C.I.; Scarano, F.R.; Assad, E.D.; Joly, C.A.; Metzger, J.P.; Strassburg, B.B.N.; Tabarelli, M.; Fonseca, G.A. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 16(4): 208-214. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.002

Rocha-Filho, L.C.; Montagnana, P.C.; Boscolo, D. & Garófalo, C.A. 2020. Green patches among a grey patchwork: the importance of preserving natural habitats to habour cavity-nesting bees and wasps (Hymenoptera) and their natural enemies in urban areas. Biodiversity and Conservation, 29(8): 2487-2517.

Rocha-Filho, L.C.; Moure-Oliveira, D.; Carvalho, S.M.; Frantine-Silva, W. & Augusto, S.C. 2019. Diversity and host-parasite interactions of cavity-nesting Hymenoptera communities in the Brazilian Savannah. Journal of Insect Conservation, 23(4): 651-65. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-019-00157-7

Rocha-Filho, L.C.; Rabelo, L.S.; Augusto, S.C. & Garófalo, C.A. 2017. Cavity-nesting bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest Fragment immersed in a matrix of agricultural land. Journal of Insect Conservation, 21(4): 727-736. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-017-0016-x

Rodriguez, J.; Pitts, J.P.; Florez, J.A.; Bond, J.E. & von Dohlen, C.D. 2016. Molecular phylogeny of Pompilinae (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae): evidence for rapid diversification and host shifts in spider wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 94(A): 55-64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.08.014

Roubik, D.W. 1992. Ecology and natural history of tropical bees. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Roubik, D.W. 1995. Trap-nesting solitary bees in the humid & wet tropics. In: Roubik, D.W. Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, Rome, 118: 160-161.

Santos, A.D.; Onody, H.C. & Brandão, C.R.F. 2017. Type specimens of Chrysidoidea (Hymenoptera) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 57(26): 327-45. http://doi.org/10.11606/0031-1049.2017.57.26

Schlindwein, C. 2004. Are oligolectic bees always the most effective pollinators? In: Freitas, B.M. & Pereira, J.O.P., Solitary bees conservation, rearing and management for pollination. Fortaleza, Federal University of Ceará. p. 231-240.

Serrano, J.C. & Garófalo, C.A. 1978. Utilização de ninhos artificiais para o estudo bionômico de abelhas e vespas solitárias. Ciência e Cultura, São Paulo, 30: 597-598.

Sheffield, C.S.; Pindar, A.; Packer, L. & Kevan, P.G. 2013. The potential of cleptoparasitic bees as indicator taxa for assessing bee communities. Apidologie, 44: 501-510. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-013-0200-2

Spofford, M.G.; Kurczewski, F.E. & Downes, W.L.J. 2012. Nearctic species of Miltogrammini (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) associated with species of Aculeata. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 62: 254-267.

Staab, M.; Pufal, G.; Tscharntke, T. & Klein, A.M. 2018. Trap nests for bees and wasps to analyse trophic interactions in changing environments – A systematic overview and user guide. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9(11): 2226-2239.

Stangler, E.S.; Hanson, P.E. & Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2015. Interactive effects of habitat fragmentation and microclimate on trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their trophic interactions in small secondary rainforest remnants. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24: 563-577. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0836-x

Tonhasca-Jr., A.; Blackmer, J.L. & Albuquerque, G.S. 2002. Abundance and diversity of Euglossine bees in the fragmented landscape of the brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biotropica, 34(3): 416-422.

Tscharntke, T.; Gathmann, A. & Steffan-Dewenter, I. 1998. Bioindication Using Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps and Their Natural Enemies: Community Structure and Interactions. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35: 708-719.

Wickham, H. 2016. Ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. New York, Springer-Verlag. Available at: https://ggplot2.tidyverse.org. Access in: 08/07/2020.

Willink, A. & Roig-Alsina, A. 1998. Revision del genero Pachodynerus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, 30: 4-117.

Zamudio, K.R.; Kellner, A.; Serejo, C.; Britto, M.R.; Castro, C.B.; Buckup, P.A.; Pires, D.O.; Couri, M.; Kury, A.B.; Cardoso, I.A.; Monné, M.L.; Pombal-Jr., J.; Patiu, C.M.; Padula, V.; Pimenta, A.D.; Ventura, C.R.R.; Hajdu, E.; Zanol, J.; Bruna, E.M.; Fizpatrick, J. & Rocha, L.A. 2018. Lack of science support fails Brazil. Science, New York, 6409: 1322-1323. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav3296

Downloads

Published

2020-09-29

How to Cite

Marinho, D., & Vivallo, F. (2020). Unveiling the trap-nesting bees and wasps’ fauna (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) and associated organisms of the Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos De Zoologia, 60, e20206049. https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2020.60.49

Issue

Section

Original Article