Factors affecting user acceptance for NFC mobile wallets in the U.S. and Korea
Palavras-chave:UTAUT, PLS-SEM, Technology adoption, NFC mobile wallets
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors affecting user acceptance for NFC mobile
wallets in both Korean and US markets.
Design/methodology/approach – The proposed model extends the UTAUT2 model with new
constructs of credibility (CR) and service smartness (SS). This study was analyzed using partial least square
structural equation modeling on data collected from 701 college students between the ages of 18 and 29.
Findings – The results of this study demonstrate that performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy
(EE), CR, SS and habit (HB) have strong positive relationships with a user’s behavioral intention to use
NFC mobile wallets. Comparing the results of the USA and South Korea, there are different results
regarding PE and CR.
Research limitations/implications – This study shows that all factors except social influence (SI)
have significant positive relationships with the intention to adopt NFC mobile wallets: Among the
original UTUAT2 factors, PE, EE and HB are important determinants of NFC mobile wallet adoption
and the new constructs, CR and SS, are significant determinants that influence BI. However, the target
respondents are limited to college students of South Korea and the USA Thus, caution should be used
when applying the results of this study towards less ICT developed countries and towards different age
Practical implications – This study provides multiple practical contributions. First, this study
emphasizes HB as the strongest factor for adopting NFC mobile wallets in both South Korea and the USA
Second, this study also highlights the importance of SS. Third, this study reveals that SI is not associated with
the adoption of NFC mobile wallets. Fourth, nationality differences between the USA and South Korea
account for the differences in consumer behaviors.
Originality/value – This study has two main contributions: First, this study introduces a modified
UTAUT2 model with two new variables (CR and SS) useful for NFC mobile wallets. Second, this study
compares the results of partial least square structured equation models (PLS-SEM) of the two nationality
groups, South Korea and the USA
Abrahão, R., Moriguchi, S., & Andrade, D. (2016). Intention of adoption of mobile payment: An analysis
in the light of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). Rai Revista de
Administração e Inovação, 13(3), 221–230. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rai.2016.06.003.
Accenture. (2015). 2015 North America consumer digital payment survey. Retrieved from www.accenture.com/
t20151021T165757__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/Accenture/next-gen/na-payment-survey/pdfs/AccentureDigital-Payments-Survey-North-America-Accenture-Executive-Summary.pdf (accessed 18 January
Alshare, K., & Mousa, A. (2014). The moderating effect of espoused cultural dimensions on consumer’s
intention to use mobile payment devices. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on
Information Systems, Auckland, pp. 1-15.
Bacon, L. D. (1999). Using LISREL and PLS to measure customer satisfaction. Proceedings of Sawtooth
Software Conference, La Jolla, CA, pp. 305-306.
Baptista, G., & Oliveira, T. (2015). Understanding mobile banking: The unified theory of acceptance
and use of technology combined with cultural moderators. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.
, pp. 418–430. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.024.
Cho, Y. (2008). Assessing user attitudes toward mobile commerce in the U.S. vs. Korea: Implications for
m-commerce CRM. The Journal of Business and Economics Research, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 91–102.
Cho, Y. (2009). A cross-cultural comparison analysis of customer attitudes toward mobile phone services in the
U.S. and Korea. International Business & Economics Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 13–25.
Dahlberg, T., Guo, J., & Ondrus, J. (2015). A critical review of mobile payment research. Electronic Commerce
Research and Applications, Vol. 14, No. (5), pp. 265–284. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2015.07.006.
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information
technology. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 319–340. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/249008.
eMarketer. (2015). U.S. Mobile payments forecast: Driven by user growth and broader acceptance, transaction
value will triple in 2016. Retrieved from www.emarketer.com/Report/US-Mobile-Payments-ForecastDriven-by-User-Growth-Broader-Acceptance-Transaction-Value-Will-Triple-2016/2001685 (accessed 18
Fan, J., Shao, M., Li, Y., & Huang, X. (2018). Understanding users’ attitude toward mobile payment use:
A comparative study between China and the USA. Industrial Management & Data Systems,
Vol. 118, No. 3, pp. 524–540. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-06-2017-0268.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables
and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 39–50.
Garcia, K. (2018). Mobile payments aren’t mainstream Yet. Retrieved from www.emarketer.com/
content/mobile-payments-aren-t-mainstream-yet (accessed 18 January 2020)
Karjaluoto, H., Shaikh, A. A., Leppaniemi, M., & Luomala, R. (2020). Examining consumers’ usage intention of
contactless payment systems. International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 38, No. x, pp. 1296–1312.
Kate, R. (2018). The mobile payments series: US. Retrieved from www.emarketer.com/content/themobile-payments-series-the-us (accessed 18 January 2020)
Khalilzadeh, J., Ozturk, A. B., & Bilgihan, A. (2017). Security-related factors in extended UTAUT model
for NFC based mobile payment in the restaurant industry. Computers in Human Behavior,
Vol. 70, pp. 460–474. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.001.
Lai, D., Lai, I., & Jordan, E. (2009). An extended UTAUT model for the study of negative user
adoption behaviors of mobile commerce. The 9th International Conference on Electronic
Lee, W., & Shin, S. (2016). A comparative study of smartphone addiction driver’s effect on work
performance in the U.S. and Korea. Journal of Applied Business Research (Jabr), Vol. 32, No. 2,
pp. 507–516. doi: https://doi.org/10.19030/jabr.v32i2.9592.
Lee, W., & Shin, S. (2018). Effects of product smartness on satisfaction: Focused on the perceived
characteristics of smartphones. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce
Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 1–14. doi: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-18762018000200102.
Mallat, N., & Tuunainen, V. K. (2008). Exploring merchant adoption of mobile payment systems: An
empirical study. e-Service Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 24–57. doi: https://doi.org/10.2979/
Manaf, N., & Ariyanti, M. (2017). Exploring key factors on technology acceptance of mobile payment users in
Indonesia using modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model use case:
ABC easy tap. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 40–44.
Morosan, C., & DeFranco, A. (2016). It’s about time: Revisiting UTAUT2 to examine consumers’
intentions to use NFC mobile payments in hotels. International Journal of Hospitality
Management, Vol. 53, pp. 17–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.11.003.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Oliveira, T., Thomas, M., Baptista, G., & Campos, F. (2016). Mobile payment understanding the
determinants of customer adoption and intention to recommend the technology. Computers in
Human Behavior, Vol. 61, pp. 404–414. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.030.
Pechmann, C., & Ratneshwar, S. (1994). The effects of antismoking and cigarette advertising on young
adolescents’ perceptions of peers who smoke. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 21, No. 2,
pp. 236–251. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/209395.
Pham, T., & Ho, J. (2015). The effect of product-related, personal-related factors and attractiveness of
alternatives on consumer adoption of NFC-based mobile payments. Technology in Society, Vol.
, pp. 159–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2015.05.004.
ResearchAndMarkets.com. (2019). Global mobile payment methods 2019. Retrieved from www.
researchandmarkets.com/research/5hzpfz/global_mobile?w=4 (accessed 18 January 2020)
Rijsdijk, S., & Hultink, E. (2009). How today’s consumers perceived tomorrow’s smart product. Journal of
Product Innovation Management, 26 (1), 24–42. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2009.00332.x.
Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Smith, D., Reams, R., & Hair, J. F. (2014). Partial least squares structural
equation modeling (PLS-SEM): A useful tool for family business researchers. Journal of Family
Business Strategy, 5 (1), 105–115. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2014.01.002.
Shim, J., Shin, S., & Weiss, M. (2006). Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB): Standards, competition,
and regulation in South Korea. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, Vol.
, No. 2, pp. 69–81.
Shin, S., & Lee, W. (2014). The effect of technology readiness and technology acceptance on NFC MPS in
Korea. Journal of Applied Business Research (Jabr), Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 1615–1625. doi: https://doi.
Shin, S., Lee, W., & Odom, D. (2014). A comparative study of smartphone user’ perception and
preference toward mobile payment methods in the U.S. and Korea. Journal of Applied Business
Research (Jabr), Vol. 30. No. 5, pp. 1365–1375. doi: https://doi.org/10.19030/jabr.v30i5.8793.
Slade, E., Dwivedi, Y., Piercy, N., & Williams, M. D. (2015a). Modeling consumers’ adoption intentions
of remote mobile payments in the United Kingdom: Extending UTAUT with innovativeness,
risk, and trust. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 32, No. (8), pp. 860–873. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/
Slade, E., Williams, M. D., Dwivedi, Y., & Piercy, N. (2015b). Exploring consumer adoption of proximity
mobile payments. Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 209–223. doi: https://doi.org/
Sobti, N. (2019). Impact of demonetization on diffusion of mobile payment service in India: Antecedents
of behavioral intention and adoption using extended UTAUT model. Journal of Advances in
Management Research, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 472–497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/JAMR-09-2018-
Sung, E., & Mayer, R. E. (2012). Student’s beliefs about mobile device vs. desktop computers in South
Korea and the United States. Computers & Education, Vol. 59, No. (4), pp. 1328–1338. doi: https://
Teo, A., Tan, G., Ooi, K., & Lin, B. (2015). Why consumers adopt mobile payment? A partial least
squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach. International Journal of Mobile
Communications, Vol. 13, No. (5), pp. 478 –497. doi: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMC.2015.070961.
Tossy, T. (2014). Modelling the adoption of mobile payment system for primary and secondary school
student examination fees in developing countries: Tanzanian experiences. International Journal
of Information Technology and Business Management, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1–12.
TSYS.com. (2017). 2017 TSYS U.S. Consumer payment study. Retrieved from www.tsys.com/Assets/
TSYS/downloads/rs_2017-us-consumer-payment-study.pdf (accessed 18 January 2020)
Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology:
Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1,
pp. 157–178. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/41410412.
Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology: A
synthesis and the road ahead. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 17, No. 5,
pp. 328–376. doi: https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00428.
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., & Davis, F. (2003). User acceptance of information technology:
Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425–478. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/30036540.
Wang, L., & Yi, Y. (2012). The impact of use context on mobile payment acceptance: An empirical study
in China. Advances in Computer Science and Education, Vol. 140, pp. 293–299.
Wong, K. K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using
SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, Vol. 24, pp. 1–32.
Wong, K. K. (2016). Technical note: Mediation analysis, categorical moderation analysis, and higherorder constructs modeling in partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): a
B2B example using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, Vol. 26, pp. 1–22.
Yen, Y., & Wu, E. (2016). Predicting the adoption of mobile financial services: The impacts of perceived
mobility and personal habit. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 65, pp. 31–42. doi: https://doi.
Yuen, Y., Yeow, P., Lim, N., & Saylani, N. (2010). Internet banking adoption: Comparing developed and
developing countries. Journal of Computer Information Systems, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 52–61.
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
• O(s) autor(es) autoriza(m) a publicação do artigo na revista;
• O(s) autor(es) garante(m) que a contribuição é original e inédita e que não está em processo de avaliação em outra(s) revista(s);
• A revista não se responsabiliza pelas opiniões, ideias e conceitos emitidos nos textos, por serem de inteira responsabilidade de seu(s) autor(es);
• É reservado aos editores o direito de proceder ajustes textuais e de adequação do artigos às normas da publicação.