Junior enterprise and entrepreneurial behavior in Brazil


  • Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de Moraes State University of Campinas, Campinas
  • Edson Sadao Iizuka Centro Universitário FEI – Campus São Paulo
  • Anne Kathleen Lopes da Rocha State University of Campinas, Campinas
  • Amanda Mecchi Diaféria Centro Universitário FEI – Campus São Paulo




Entrepreneurial intention, Brazil, Entrepreneurial behavior, Entrepreneurial profile, Junior enterprise


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze what is the influence of the junior enterprise environment on the entrepreneurial profile and intention of university students and what is the difference in the entrepreneurial behavior between students who participated and students who did not participate in junior enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative approach based on multivariate data analysis using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling was applied to a sample of 549 respondents.

Findings – Participation in junior enterprises influences the development of the students’ entrepreneurial profile more than their entrepreneurial intention. This study presents which behavioral characteristics are mostly developed with participation in a junior enterprise.

Research limitations/implications – The questionnaire with perception conditions and self-assessment indicators; data collection by a single cross-sectional research design; the scope of the research, which did not use a probabilistic sampling.

Practical implications – Practical implications are to assist higher education institutions in having a more accurate understanding of the role of junior enterprises in stimulating university entrepreneurship. To implement an effective entrepreneurial education, stimulating junior companies can be a fundamental action for the HEIs, and this is valid for courses in all areas. Entrepreneurial education in a practical context, as in the case of a junior company, can increase entrepreneurial intention.

Originality/value – This research fills a research gap on the uncertainty of the effectiveness of entrepreneurial education in developing the entrepreneurial behavior and entrepreneurial intention of students, at least when considering the junior company as part of entrepreneurial education in the university context, presenting a robust quantitative methodology and a large sample in a developing country.


Não há dados estatísticos.


Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Lehmann, E. E., & Litch, G. (2017). National systems of innovation. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(5), 997–1008. doi: 10.1007/s10961-016-9481-8.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.

Aleksandrova, E., Gerry, C. J., & Verkhovskaya, O. (2020). Missing entrepreneurs: The importance of attitudes and control in shaping entrepreneurial intentions in russia. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(1), 1–33. doi: 10.1108/JEEE-11-2018-0133.

Almeida, L. R. S. D., Cordeiro, E. D. P. B., & Silva, J. A. G. D. (2019). Proposiç~oes acerca do ensino de empreendedorismo nas instituiç~oes de ensino superior brasileiras: Uma revis~ao bibliogr´afica. Revista de Ci^encias da Administraç~ao, 1(3), 109–122. doi: 10.5007/2175-8077.2018v20n52p109.

Amaral, M., Toledo Hernandez, C., Henrique, M., & Bastos, R. (2018). The entrepreneurial profile of Brazilian business administration students. International Journal of Innovation Science, 10(2), 160–177. doi: 10.1108/IJIS-05-2017-0040.

Atiya, T. M. S., Bilal, Z. O., Abulhamid, M., & Shoaib, S. A. (2019). The impact of entrepreneurial characteristics on entrepreneurial intention of sudanese and Omani university students. European Scientific Journal Esj, 15(4), 1857–7881. doi: 10.19044/esj.2019.v15n4p66.

Barba-S´anchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2018). Educaci´on emprendedora atrav´es de las junior empresas. Journal of Management and Business Education, 1(2), 106–116.https://redaedem.org/ JMBE2/num_anteriores/Vol.%2001.%20Num.%202-4.%202018.pdf doi: 10.35564/jmbe. 2018.0009.

Becker, J.-M., Klein, K., & Wetzels, M. (2012). Hierarchical latent variable models in PLS-SEM: Guidelines for using reflective-formative type models. Long Range Planning, 45(5-6), 359–394. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2012.10.001.

Brady, M. K., & Cronin, J. J. (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: A hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing, 65(3), 34–49. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.

Brasil. (2016). Lei n8 13.267, de 06 de abril de. Disciplina a criaç~ao e a organizaç~ao das associaç~oes denominadas empresas juniores, com funcionamento perante instituiç~oes de ensino superior. Bras´ılia, Retrieved from www.in.gov.br/materia/-/asset_publisher/Kujrw0TZC2Mb/content/id/ 21173868/do1-2016-04-07-lei-n-13-267-de-6-de-abril-de-2016-21173742.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cranmer, S. (2006). Enhancing graduate employability: Best intentions and miXed outcomes. Studies in

Higher Education, 31(2), 169–184. doi: 10.1080/03075070600572041.

Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1998). An introduction to the bootstrap, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149– 1160. doi: 10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149.

Filion, L. J. (1994). Entrepreneurship and management: Differing but complementary processes. Journal of Business Research, 7(3), 2–7.

Fischer, B. B., Moraes, G. H. S. M., & Schaeffer, P. R. (2019). Universities’ institutional settings and academic entrepreneurship: Notes from a developing country. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 147, 243–252. doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2019.07.009.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. doi: 10.2307/ 3151312.

Fragoso, R., Rocha-Junior, W., & Xavier, A. (2020). Determinant factors of entrepreneurial intention among university students in Brazil and Portugal. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 32(1), 33–57. doi: 10.1080/08276331.2018.1551459.

Grewe, U., & Brahm, T. (2020). Development of entrepreneurial competences in mini-companies at schools. Education þ Training, 62(7/8), 917–931. doi: 10.1108/ET-08-2019-0186.

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., Cunningham, J. A., & Gaj´on, E. (2018). Determinants of graduates’ start-ups creation across a multi-campus entrepreneurial university: The case of monterrey institute of technology and higher education. Journal of Small Business Management, 56(1), 150–178. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12366

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2018). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Iizuka, E. S., & de Moraes, G. H. S. M. (2014). An´alise do potencial e perfil empreendedor do estudante de administraç~ao e o ambiente universit´ario: Reflex~oes Para instituiç~oes de ensino. Administraç~ao: Ensino e Pesquisa, 15(3), 593–630. doi: 10.13058/raep.2014.v15n3.16.

Johansen, V. (2016). Gender and self-employment: The role of mini-companies. Education Training, 58(2), 150–163. doi: 10.1108/ET-06-2015-0051.

Krakauer, P. V. C., Moraes, G. H. S. M., Coda, R., & Berne, D. F. (2018). Brazilian women’s entrepreneurial profile and intention. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 10(4), 361–380. doi: 10.1108/IJGE-04-2018-0032.

Lin~´an, F., & Chen, Y. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593–617. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.X.

Lin~´an, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: Citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907–933. doi: 10.1007/s11365-015-0356-5.

Liu, T., Walley, K., Pugh, G., & Adkins, P. (2020). Entrepreneurship education in China evidence from a preliminary scoping study of enterprising tendency in Chinese university students. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(2), 305–326. doi: 10.1108/JEEE-01-2019-0006.

Moraes, G. H. S. M., Fischer, B. B., Campos, M. L., & Schaeffer, P. R. (2020). University ecosystems and the commitment of faculty members to support entrepreneurial activities. Brazilian Administration Review (BAR), 17(2), 1–26. doi: 10.1590/1807-7692bar2020190013.

Moraes, G. H. S. M., Iizuka, E. S., & Pedro, M. (2018). Effects of entrepreneurial characteristics and university environment on entrepreneurial intention. Revista de Administraç~ao Contempor^anea, 22(2), 226–248. doi: 10.1590/1982-7849rac2018170133.

Nowin´ski, W., Haddoud, M. Y., Lanˇcariˇc, D., Egerov´a, D., & Czegl´edi, C. (2019). The impact of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and gender on Entrepreneurial intentions of university students in the visegrad countries. Studies in Higher Education, 44(2), 361–379. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2017.1365359.

Nunally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ozaralli, N., & Rivenburgh, N. K. (2016). Entrepreneurial intention: Antecedents to entrepreneurial behavior in the U. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6(1), 2–32. doi: 10.1186/s40497- 016-0047-X.

Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). Burst bubbles or build steam? Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 970–985. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12116.

Ringle, C. M., & Becker, J.-M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Retrieved from SmartPLS 3 website: Retrieved from www.smartpls.com.

Rocha, E. L. C., & Freitas, A. A. F. (2014). Avaliaç~ao do ensino de empreendedorismo entre estudantes universit´arios por meio do perfil empreendedor. Revista de Administraç~ao Contempor^anea, 18(4), 465–486. doi: 10.1590/1982-7849rac20141512.

Saeed, S., Yousafzai, S. Y., Yani-De-Soriano, M., & Muffatto, M. (2015). The role of perceived university support in the formation of students’ entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 1127–1145. doi: 10.1111/jsbm.12090.

Salisu, I., Hashim, N., Shehu Mashi, M., & Galadanchi Aliyu, H. (2020). Perseverance of effort and consistency of interest for entrepreneurial career success. Does resilience matter? Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(2), 279–304. doi: 10.1108/JEEE-02- 2019-0025.

Schmidt, S., & Bohnenberger, M. C. (2009). Perfil empreendedor e desempenho organizacional. Revista de Administraç~ao Contempor^anea, 13(3), 450–467. doi: 10.1590/S1415-65552009000300007.

Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, pp. 72–90. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Shi, L., Yao, X., & Wu, W. (2020). Perceived university support, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, heterogeneous entrepreneurial intentions in entrepreneurship education the moderating role of the Chinese sense of face. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 12(2), 205–230. doi: 10.1108/JEEE-04-2019-0040.

Sin, C., & Neave, G. (2016). Employability deconstructed: Perceptions of bologna stakeholders. Studies in Higher Education, 41(8), 1447–1462. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2014.977859.

Turker, D., & Selcuk, S. S. (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(2), 142–159. doi: 10.1108/ 03090590910939049.

Violante, M. G., & Vezzetti, E. (2017). Guidelines to design engineering education in the twenty-first century for supporting innovative product development. European Journal of Engineering Education, 42(6), 42. doi: 10.1080/03043797.2017.1293616.

Vod˘a, A. I., & Florea, N. (2019). Impact of personality traits and entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students. Sustainability, 11(4), 1192. doi: 10.3390/su11041192.

Zhao, H., & Seibert, S. E. (2006). The big five personality dimensions and entrepreneurial status: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 259–271. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91. 2.259.

Zhao, H., Hills, G. E., & Seibert, S. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90. 6.1265.




Como Citar

Moraes, G. H. S. M. de ., Iizuka, E. S. ., Rocha, A. K. L. da, & Diaféria, A. M. . (2022). Junior enterprise and entrepreneurial behavior in Brazil. INMR - Innovation & Management Review, 19(2), 156-172. https://doi.org/10.1108/INMR-09-2020-0119