Time limit at maximal aerobic power, heart rate kinetics and performance in time-trial cycling test of 3 km


  • Eduardo Rumenig Souza Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
  • Wonder Passoni Higino Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais, Muzambinho, MG, Brasil.
  • Carla S. Batista Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.
  • Maria Augusta Peduti Dal'Molin Kiss Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
  • Benedito Pereira Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.




Frequência cardíaca, Potência aeróbia máxima, Contra-relógio, Ciclismo


The performance of cyclists in short terms workouts can be associate with several factors, including the maximal aerobic power (MAP), heart rate (HR) and its kinetics parameters, and the capacity to tolerate maximal efforts to exhaustion (TLimMAP). Thereby, the main of this study was analyze the presumable relation among TLimMAP and performance in a time-trial cycling test of 3 km. (TT3km). Seven cyclists were involved in this study, performing the following tests with a minimum interval of 48h: (1) initial familiarization and anthropometric evaluation, (2) maximal progressive test to exhaustion, (3) TLimMAP and (4) TT3km test. There was a tendency of subjects with higher values to TLimMAP performed the TT3km faster (r = -0,71; p = 0,07). It showed positive correlation among TLimMAP and the first time constant of the heart rate at the beginning of exercise (r = 0,95 e p < 0,01), and negative to TLimMAP and the first time constant of the heart rate recovery (r = -0,67 e p = 0,04). The tendency to association among the TLimMAP and performance at the TT3km indicate that the TLimMAP could be utilized in the assessment of cyclists – although with caveats – since there was not significant correlation. Additional investigations to enlighten the relations among TLimMAP, HR kinetics and performance would characterize a proficuous field of research.


Os dados de download ainda não estão disponíveis.


Hagan RD, Upton SJ, Duncan JJ, Gettman LR. Marathon performance in relation to maximal aerobic power and training indices in female distance runners. Br J Sports Med. 1987;21:3-7.

Bassett DRJ, Howley ET. Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:70-84.

Coen B, Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Individual anaerobic threshold: methodological aspects of its assessment in running. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:8-16.

Nevill A, Atkinson G, Hughes M. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:413-26.

Noakes, TD. Implications of exercise testing for prediction of athletic performance: a contemporary perspective. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988;20:319-30.

Billat VL, Koralsztein JP. Significance of the velocity at VO2max and time to exhaustion at this velocity. Sports Med. 1996;22:90-108.

Bertuzzi RCM, Bueno S, Pasqua LA, et al. Bioenergetics and neuromuscular determinants of the time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to VO2max in recreational long-distance runners. J Strength Cond Res. 2012; 26:2096-102.

Balmer J, Richard Davison R, Bird SR. Peak power predicts performance power during an outdoor 16.1-km cycling time trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1485-90.

Nummela AT, Paavolainen LM, Sharwood KA, Lambert MI, Noakes TD, Rusko HK. Neuromuscular factors determining 5 km running performance and running economy in well-trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:1-8.

Astrand PO, Saltin B. Maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate in various types of muscular activity. J Appl Physiol. 1961;16:977-81.

Savin WM, Davidson DM, Haskell WL. Autonomic contribution to heart rate recovery from exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1982;53:1572-5.

Aubert AE, Seps B, Beckers F. Heart rate variability in athletes. Sports Med. 2003;33:889-919.

Hautala AJ, Mäkikallio TH, Kiviniemi A, et al. Heart rate dynamics after controlled training followed by a home-based exercise program. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92:289-97.

Achten J, Jeukendrup AE. Heart rate monitoring: applications and limitations. Sports Med. 2003;33:517-38.

Green AL, Wang S, Purvis S, et al. Identifying cardiorespiratory neurocircuitry involved in central command during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2007;578:605-12.

Guedes DP. Estudo da gordura corporal através da mensuração dos valores de densidade corporal e da espessura de dobras cutâneas em universitários. Kinesis. 1985;2:183-212.

Siri WE. Body composition from fluids spaces and density: analysis of two methods. In: Brozek J, Henschel A. Techniques for measuring body composition. Washington: National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council; 1961. p.223-44.

Leirdal S, Ettema G. The relationship between cadence, pedalling technique and gross efficiency in cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:2885-93.

Steiner T, Müller B, Maier T, Wehrlein JP. Performance differences when using 26- and 29-inch-wheel bikes in Swiss National Team cross-country mountain bikers. J Sports Sci. 2015;33:1-7.

Lucia A, Hoyos J, Perez M, Santalla A, Earnest CP, Chicharro JL. Which laboratory variable is related with time trial performance time in the Tour de France? Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:636-40.

Denadai BS, Figueira TR, Favaro OR, Gonçalves M. Effect of the aerobic capacity on the validity of the anaerobic threshold for determination of the maximal lactate steady state in cycling. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:1551-6.

Boudet G, Garet M, Bedu M, Albuisson E, Chamoux A. Median maximal heart rate for heart rate calibration in different conditions: laboratory, field and competition. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23:290-7.

Padilla S, Mujika I, Cuesta G, Goiriena JJ. Level ground and uphill cycling ability in professional road cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:878-85.

Gamelin FX, Berthoin S, Bosquet L. Validity of the polar S810 heart rate monitor to measure R-R intervals at rest. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38:887-93.

Ozyener F, Rossiter HB, Ward SA, Whipp BJ. Influence of exercise intensity on the on and off transient Kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake in humans. J Physiol. 2001;533:891-902.

Yamamoto Y, Hughson RL, Peterson JC. Autonomic control of heart rate during exercise studied by heart rate variability spectral analysis. J Appl Physiol. 1991;71:1136-42.

Bearden SE, Moffatt RJ. VO2 and heart rate kinetics in cycling: transitions from an elevated baseline. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90:2081-87.

Bell C, Paterson DH, Kowalchuk JM, Padilla J, Cunningham DA. A comparison of modeling techniques used to characterize oxygen uptake kinetics during the on-transient of exercise. Exp Physiol. 2001;86:667-76.

Coquart JB, Eston RG, Noakes TD, et al. Estimated time limit a brief review of a perceptually based scale. Sports Med. 2012;42:845-55.

Basset FA, Billaut F, Joanisse DR. Anthropometric characteristics account for time to exhaustion in cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35:1084-89.

Billat V, Faina M, Sardella FA, et al. Comparison of time to exhaustion at VO2 max in élite cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners. Ergonomis. 1996;39:267-77.

Zorgati H, Collomp K, Boone J, et al. Effect of pedaling cadence on muscle oxygenation during high-intensity cycling until exhaustion: a comparison between untrained subjects and triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015;115:2681-89.

Kaikkonen P, Nummella A, Rusko H. Heart rate variability dynamics during early recovery after different endurance exercises. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;102:79-86.

Borrensen J, Lambert MI. Autonomic control of heart rate during and after exercise: measurements and implications for monitoring training status. Sports Med. 2008;38:633-46.

Javorka M, Zila I, Balharek T, Javorka K. On- and off-responses of heart rate to exercise relations to heart rate variability. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2003;23:1-8.

Bellenger CR, Thomson RL, Howe PR, Karavirta L, Buckley JD. Monitoring athletic training status using the maximal rate of heart rate increase. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;10:1-6.

Sietsema KE, Daly JA, Wasserman K. Early dynamics of O2 uptake and heart rate as affected by exercise work rate. J Appl Physiol. 1989;67:2535-41.

Laughlin MA. Cardiovascular response to exercise. Adv Physiol Educ. 1999;22:244-59.

Hellsten Y, Nyberg M. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training. Compreh Physiol. 2015;6:1-32.

Lador F, Tam E, Azabji Kenfack M, et al. Phase I dynamics of cardiac output, systemic O2 delivery, and lung O2 uptake at exercise onset in men in acute normobaric hypoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R624-32.

Kannankeril PJ, Le FK, Kadish AH, Goldberger JJ. Parasympathetic effects on heart rate recovery after exercise. J Investig Med. 2004;52:394-401.

Lamberts R, Swart J, Capostagno B, Noakes TD, Lambert MI. Heart rate recovery as a guide to monitor fatigue and predict changes in performance parameters. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:449-57.

Nelson MJ, Thomson RL, Rogers DK, Howe PRC, Buckley JD. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17:129-33.

Antón MM, Izquierdo M, Ibáñez J, Asiain J, Mendiguchía J, Gorostiaga EM. Flat and uphill climb time trial performance prediction in elite amateur cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28:306-13.

Richard Davison RC, Swan D, Coleman D, Bird S. Correlate of simulated hill climb cycling performance. J Sport Sci. 2000;18:105-10.







Como Citar

Souza, E. R. ., Higino, W. P. ., Batista, C. S. ., Kiss, M. A. P. D. ., & Pereira, B. . (2021). Time limit at maximal aerobic power, heart rate kinetics and performance in time-trial cycling test of 3 km. Revista Brasileira De Educação Física E Esporte, 35(4), 171-180. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-4690.v35i4p171-180