COVID-19 em China, Itália e Estados Unidos da América: uma breve revisão

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1679-9836.v100i2p162-170

Palavras-chave:

Infecções por Coronavírus, Epidemiologia, Pandemia, Sinais e sintomas

Resumo

Em dezembro de 2019, um novo coronavírus foi identificado e associado à ocorrência de pneumonia de causa desconhecida na China. SARS-CoV-2 rapidamente disseminou-se, e, atualmente, a COVID-19 é classificada como pandemia. O objetivo desse estudo consiste em discutir as características gerais da COVID-19, incluindo a epidemiologia, transmissão, medidas de controle, virologia, diagnóstico, apresentações clínicas e achados radiológicos e laboratoriais. Nesse contexto, foram consultados artigos publicados em base de dados com a finalidade de comparação entre países mais afetados na Ásia, Europa e América até 31 de março de 2020. A principal forma de transmissão ocorre entre humanos por secreções respiratórias, e estudos indicam um substancial envolvimento de pacientes assintomáticos nesse processo. Pacientes com COVID-19 são predominantemente homens e podem apresentar inúmeros sintomas, especialmente febre e tosse. Hipertensão arterial e diabetes mellitus foram as comorbidades mais comuns. Pior prognóstico está associados a aumento da idade, comorbidades e complicações. Anormalidades na tomografia computadorizada de tórax são frequentes, sendo opacidades em vidro fosco e infiltrados bilaterais os padrões pulmonares mais comuns, contudo porcentagem significativa dos pacientes não apresenta alterações na admissão. Exames laboratoriais normalmente apresentam linfocitopenia, aumento de contagem de neutrófilos e plaquetas, velocidade de hemossedimentação, lactato desidrogenase, proteína C reativa, ferritina, bilirrubina total, aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, creatinina, creatina fosfoquinase, mioglobina, glicose e citocinas. Apesar dos achados radiológicos e laboratoriais apresentarem similaridades na China, Itália e EUA, as taxas de mortalidade podem ser conflitantes, sugerindo, portanto, a necessidade de estudos de acordo com cada região.

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Biografia do Autor

Amanda Ribeiro Rangel, UFC

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará Brasil. 

Luísa Macambira Noronha, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará Brasil. 

Gabriel Cavalcante Lima Chagas, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará Brasil.

Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará

Departamento de Análise Clínica e Toxicológica, Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil.

Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Júnior, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, University of Fortaleza

Programas de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade de Fortaleza. Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil.

Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Department of Community Health, Federal University of Ceará

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Secretaria de Saúde Comunitária, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brasil. 

Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará Brasil.

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Publicado

2021-05-20

Como Citar

Rangel, A. R., Noronha, L. M., Chagas, G. C. L., Meneses, G. C., Silva Júnior, G. B. da, Pires Neto, R. da J., & Daher, E. D. F. (2021). COVID-19 em China, Itália e Estados Unidos da América: uma breve revisão. Revista De Medicina, 100(2), 162-170. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1679-9836.v100i2p162-170

Edição

Seção

Artigos de Revisão/Review Articles