Calcificação na artéria coronária em atletas de endurance: uma revisão narrativa

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1679-9836.v101i3e-191536

Palavras-chave:

Calcificação, Coronárias, Atletas, Calcificação vascular, Doenças cardiovasculares

Resumo

Introdução: a doença cardiovascular é a principal causa de morte em todo o mundo e a doença arterial coronariana se destaca pelo número de óbitos. A calcificação da artéria coronária (CAC) aumentada é um fator de risco para eventos coronarianos, no entanto, homens adultos saudáveis com alta carga de treino ao longo dos anos e com histórico de longas provas de resistência demonstram altos valores de CAC. Objetivo: tendo em vista o paradoxo existente entre os efeitos do treinamento físico extenuante e o desenvolvimento da calcificação coronariana, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o mecanismo da CAC em homens adultos fisicamente ativos. Métodos: Este estudo caracteriza-se como uma revisão narrativa, tendo como base, produções científicas nas línguas portuguesa e inglesa, nas seguintes bases de dados: National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Scientific Eletronic Library On-line (SciELO) e US National Library of Medicine (NCBI). Resultados: Em um estudo, 150, dos 284 participantes (53%), tinham o escore de CAC mediano de 35,8 [9,3-145,8]. O volume médio de exercício ao longo da vida foi de 2,9 [1,9-4,4] horas/semana, resultando em 1356 [851-2030] equivalentes metabólicos de tarefa (MET)-min/semana. Além disso, a presença da CAC foi mais comum naqueles com maiores volumes de exercícios ao longo da vida. Assim como em outros trabalhos, pode-se considerar que maiores pontuações da CAC e maiores placas coronárias em atletas podem ser interpretados como um efeito deletério do exercício nas artérias coronárias, entretanto, a natureza calcificada e estável das placas em homens atletas também podem ser considerada como protetora contra a ruptura da placa e infarto agudo do miocárdio. Conclusão: Os atletas de endurance estão mais predispostos ao aumento da calcificação da artéria coronária que indivíduos menos ativos ou sedentários, contudo o que se observa é que as altas cargas de exercício físico ao longo da vida parecem promover mais benefícios do que risco a saúde cardiovascular.

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Biografia do Autor

Gabriele Justo Canevazzi, Centro Universitário das Américas

Graduada em Medicina pelo Centro Universitário das Américas (FAM), São Paulo, SP. 

Francielle Santos Almeida, Centro Universitário das Américas

Graduada em Medicina pelo Centro Universitário das Américas (FAM), São Paulo, SP. 

Adriana Boiteux do Carmo, Centro Universitário das Américas

Graduanda em Medicina, Centro Universitário das Américas (FAM). São Paulo, SP. 

Marianne Peixoto Sobral Giroldo Badessa, Centro Universitário São Camilo

Mestre pela UNIFESP e docente no curso de medicina do Centro Universitário São Camilo, São Paulo, SP. 

Pedro Gabriel Senger Braga, Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clínicas. Instituto do Coração

Laboratório de Metabolismo de Lípides do Instituto do Coração (InCor), Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP). São Paulo, SP. 

Marcelo Luiz Peixoto Sobral, Centro Universitário das Américas

Doutor em ciências pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Departamento de Cirurgia Cardiovascular e Torácica, Instituto do Coração, São Paulo, SP. Docente no curso de medicina do Centro Universitário das Américas (FAM) e do Centro Universitário São Camilo, São Paulo, SP.

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Publicado

2022-05-03

Como Citar

Canevazzi, G. J., Almeida, F. S., Carmo, A. B. do, Badessa, M. P. S. G., Braga, P. G. S., & Sobral, M. L. P. (2022). Calcificação na artéria coronária em atletas de endurance: uma revisão narrativa. Revista De Medicina, 101(3), e-191536. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1679-9836.v101i3e-191536

Edição

Seção

Artigos de Revisão/Review Articles